AP Biology - Q3 Final

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pancrine signaling

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245 Terms

1

pancrine signaling

cells that communicate to each other through nuerons at a closer distance

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2

Endocrine signaling

uses hormones to talk to other cells across far distances

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3

stages of cell signaling

  1. Reception

  2. Transduction

  3. Response

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4

Types of cell signaling

chemical, electromagnetic, mechanical

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5

Ligand

A molecule that binds specifically to another molecule, usually a larger one AKA the receptor

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6

what type of type of ligand will pass through the cell membrane

small nonpolar

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7

G proein linked system

ligand attaches to a protein which adds a phosphate group that activates 1 enzyme

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8

g protien analogy

1 ligand = 1 enzyme reaction

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9

tyrosine kinase system

is a 2 part system, when a ligand finds each of them they can activate multiple things to happen after releasing 1 hormone

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10

tyrosine kinase example

insulin and puberty

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11

ion channel

protein pre that opens or cloese in response to a chemical signal

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12

ion channel is similar to...

...sodium potassium pump

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13

intracellular receptor is found here

cytoplasm not the membrane becuase their recptor floats

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14

transcription factor

acticate the cytoplasmic receptor proteins

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15

Kinase

An enzyme that transfers phosphate ions from one molecule to another

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16

Phospatase

a protein that undoes phosphorylation by removing a phosphate group

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17

secondary messengers

many signaling pathways that involve small, nonprotein, water-soluble ions,

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18

cyclic AMP

acts like ATP and is the middle man/step 2 in signal transduction (form of energy that relays messages from the reveptor to somewhere else)

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19

apoptosis pathway examples

viruses, mutations, fetal cell development

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20

Homeostasis

a balanced state of the cell (happy place)

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21

homeostatic control system

receptor, control center, effector

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22

example of positive feedback

pregnancy, it ends and does not cycle

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23

exmaple of negative feedback

homeostasis cycle, contiuous

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24

cell division

essential to the development of a multicellular organism that begins as a fertilized egg or zygote

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25

prokaryotic genome

single circular chromosome

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26

Eukaryotic genome

consists of several DNA molecules that are long and linear

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27

genome

a cells genetic information, packaged as DNA

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28

somatic cells

(nonreproductive cells) have two sets of chromosomes

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29

Gametes

reproductive cells (diploid)

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30

chromatin def

The complex of DNA and proteins that condenses during cell division

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31

chromatin formation

large rope of histones with DNA wrapped around them

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32

plasmids

bonus DNA

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33

46 chromosomes

body cells

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34

sister chromatids

Identical copies of a Chromosome

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35

centromere

Area where the chromatids of a chromosome are attached

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36

Mitosis

division of the nucleus

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37

Meiosis

Cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms

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38

Cytokinesis

division of the cytoplasm

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39

G0 phase

A nondividing state occupied by cells that have left the cell cycle, sometimes reversibly.

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40

G1 checkpoint

checks for cell size, nutrients, growth factors and DNA damage

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41

G1 phase

The first gap, or growth phase, of the cell cycle, cells make organells, make more cytoplasm, cell does its thing

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42

S phase

DNA replication

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43

G2 phase

The second growth phase of the cell cycle, cells make proteins and organelles needed for mitosis and cytikinesis

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44

Prophase

cells chromatin tightens into desly packed chromosomes

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45

Prophase picture

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46

metaphase

sister chromatids are pulled along the spindle appartatus toward the cent of the cell and they line up in the middle.

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47

Metaphase (picture)

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48

Anaphase

the microtubules of the spindle apparatus begin to shorten, the sister chormatids separate, the chomosomes move toward the poles of the cell

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49

Anaphase (picture)

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50

telophase

the chromosomes arrive at the piles and begin to relax ( DNA into chromatin form), nucleous reform at each end of the cell, spindle apparatus disassembles

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51

Telophase (picture)

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52

Cytokinesis in animal cells

micorfilaments constrict, or pinch the cytoplasm

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53

Cytokinesis in plants

a new structure is called a cell plate forms

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54

density-dependant inhibition

Growth factors that appear to be a key in cell division, normal cells do this when they bump into neighboring cells , cancer does this

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55

anchorage dependence

most animal cells also exhibit thsi for cell division, dependent on being anchored

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56

cancer

cells that divide to much and get in the way, takes about 8x of cell death to get a mutation, happens in the S phase

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57

tumor

a mass of cells that have grown too much

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58

benign tumor

An abnormal mass of cells that remains at its original site in the body, relies on anchorage

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59

malignant

lost anchorage dependents and reanchores in a new place and affects surrounding areas

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metastasis

the cells unanchore themselves, reanchore, and spread throughout the body

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61

tumor suppresor genes

a normal gene that resuls in a preoten that stops cell division, brake pedal

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62

p53 gene

type of tumor supressed gene that is the main starter for most cancers due to mutation.

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63

roles of P53

repairs DNA, stops cell division, does apoptosis, and gaurdian angel genome

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64

Proto-oncogene

a normal gene that results in aprotein that starts cell division, healthy gene, responsible for normal growth

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oncongenes

cancer causing genes, they are mutated cells

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66

apoptosis

programmed cell death

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67

telomerase

An enzyme that catalyzes the lengthening of telomeres in eukaryotic germ cells.

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68

what genes cause cancer?

oncongenes, proto-oncongene, telomerase, anchorage dependence, density dependent inhibition, apoptosis

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69

Genes

DNA segments that serve as the key functional units in hereditary transmission.

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70

genetics

the scientific study of heredity and vatiation

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Gametes

genes that are passed to the nxt generation through reproductive cells

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Locus

specific location of the gene

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73

karyotype

micrograph in whcih the pairs of homologous chromosomes are arranged in decreasing size

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74

autosomes

the non-sex paired chromosomes

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75

homologous chromosomes

pairs that carry genes that control the same inherited characters

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76

zygote

the fertilized egg now has 2 haploid sets of chormosomes bearing genes from the maternal and paternal family lines

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77

syngamy

these cells fuse resulting fertilization

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78

Meiosis

Cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms creating 4 simalar chromosomes

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79

mitosis

produces 2 identical daughter cells

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80

chiasmata

the chromatieds are crossed and segments of the chromosmes are traded

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81

synapsis

special proteins attach homologous tighly together

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82

mutautions

original source of genetic diversity

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83

3 sources of gentic variability

  1. independent assortment

  2. crossing over

  3. randomfertilization

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84

independent assortment

random orientation of tetrads at the metaphase plate

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85

crossing over

produces recombinant chromosomes which combine genes inherited from each parent

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86

random fertilization

any sperm can fertilize any egg

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87

Law of Segregation

Mendel's law that states that the pairs of homologous chromosomes separate in meiosis so that only one chromosome from each pair is present in each gamete

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law of independent assortment

Each pair of alleles segregates independently of each other pair of alleles during gamete formation

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89

alleles

alternative versions of henes that account for variations in inherited characteristics

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90

Metabolism

All of the chemical reactions that occur within an organism

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91

metabolic pathway

A series of chemical reactions that either builds a complex molecule or breaks down a complex molecule into simpler compounds.

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92

catabolic process

release of energy by breaking down complex molecules to simpler compounds

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93

Anabolic process

consume energy to build complicated molecules from simpler compounds

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94

Kinetic energy

energy of motion

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95

potential energy

the energy that matter possess because of its location or structure

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96

Thermodynamics 1st law

energy can be trasferred and transformed, but it cannot be created or destroyed

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97

Thermodynamics 2nd law

every energy transformation must make the universe more disordered

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98

Entropy

a quantity used as a measure of disorder or randomness

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99

how do cells make macromolecules without violating the laws of thermodynamics

organisms are open systems and take in organized energy like light and replace tghem with less oredered forms, especially heat

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100

Free energy

the portions of a systems energy that is able to perform work

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