BIO FINAL EXAM STUDY

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Carlos Justiniano Ribeiro Chagas (Choose all that apply).

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1

Carlos Justiniano Ribeiro Chagas (Choose all that apply).

Discovered that the fungus of the genus Pneumocystis can cause pneumonia in humans

\n Was the first scientist to recommend spraying of homes with the plant-based insecticide, pyrethrum, as a means of reducing the incidence of malaria

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2

Seed plants were important for dramatically changing human culture because they

\n Allowed humans to become the dominant producers in ecosystems

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3

Shade leaf response to changing light levels

photosynthetic rate decreases

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4

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5

Which of the following statements is NOT true about gymnosperms?

These plants were the first to have lignin

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6

What was the first country to eliminate West African Trypanosomiasis?

Togo

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7

What is the best current definition of Protists?

Non-plant, non-animal, non-fungal eukaryotes

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8

If recent research showed that Archaea and Eukaryotes were not separate domains of life the number of domains of life would change from:

3 to 2

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9

Which of the following groups of organisms is not an important decomposer of organic matter?

Arbuscular mycorrhizae

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10

Charophytes have apical meristems.

False

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11

The dominant generation in ferns is the gametophyte.

False

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12

Which of the following is the group of plants that was the major food source for huge herbivorous dinosaurs?

Gymnosperms

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13

Which of the following groups of plants has the most species that exist on Earth today?

\n Angiosperms

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14

Flowers co-evolved with animals and sometimes only a certain pollinator has access to the nectar in a flower.

True

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15

Lignin was a major evolutionary innovation for non-vascular plants.

False

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16

The first forests and sphagnum peatlands both had/have high carbon storage in their soil.

True

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17

The dominant generation in angiosperms is the sporophyte

True

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18

Bacterial diversity increases as you move towards the equator from the poles

False

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19

\n Monocots have flower parts in multiples of 3.

True

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20

\n Hypothetically, let’s say a spruce tree lives in an ecosystem where only organic nitrogen is present.  The spruce tree has mycorrhizae that help in live in this environment. Which type of mycorrhizae does the spruce tree likely have?

Ectomycorrhizae

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21

The dominant form in mosses is the gametophyte

True

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22

What is one advantage of the heterokaryotic phase during fungal reproduction?

\n Fungi have the potential for diversity via sexual reproduction but can wait for an advantageous time

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23

Which of the following is a characteristic of Archaea than makes them distinct from Bacteria?

They generate methane

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24

Which one of these is NOT a dominant cause of methane emissions?

fertilizer runoff

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25

What nutrient is most limiting to plants in most terrestrial ecosystems?

Nitrogen

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26

Leaves that are just emerging in the Spring are sources for sugar.

False

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27

Tree rings on an Oakwell oak tree show a larger diameter in the 1940s than in previous years. What is the most likely cause for this increase in tree ring size?

\n Increased atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations following the industrial revolution

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28

How do fava bean plants respond to being infested with pea aphids, and how does that response lead to less infection by aphids?

Aphid infestation causes plant to release volatile compounds (1) that attract parasitoid wasps (1) that lay eggs in aphid (1), killing the aphid (1).

Aphids have endosymbiotic bacteria that prevent the development of the wasp larvae (1). Aphids attenuate release of volatile wasp-attractant reducing parasitic wasp recruitment (1).

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29

If you put a cell with a water potential of -0.7MPa in a beaker with a water potential of 0.0MPa, water will flow out of the cell.

False

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30

Excess nutrients in coastal waters can be caused by septic systems

True

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31

In a Science News article we discussed why drought or deforestation in the Amazon can alter weather patterns. Which of the following is a plant-based process that drives weather in these rainforests?

\n Transpiration

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32

\n Which soil horizon would you guess would contain the most fungi?

\n O

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33

The majority of the total dry mass of plants is derived from which of these?

Carbon dioxide

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35

Use the graph below on the Hawaiian chronosequence experiment to inform your answer. Which of the following islands would you expect to have the lowest available nitrogen in soils?

The youngest island

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36

\n Nitrogen fixation is an energetically expensive process for both humans and plants because there is a triple bond that needs to be broken in generating mineral nitrogen.

True

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37

Sycamore trees lose 80% of their xylem conductance due to cavitation at -2.0 MPa and Oak trees lose 80% of their xylem conductance due to cavitation at -3.0 MPa. Oak trees are the more drought tolerant plant species.

True

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38

Red tides are caused by toxins produced by excess growth of a photoautotroph

True

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39

\n In one sentence tell me why a farmer would produce less wheat in a drought year.

If there is a drought there is less water meaning the stomata would remain closed more which means less CO2 uptake which is a substrate for photosynthesis so less sugar is being made which results in less biomass and fewer crops for the farmer.

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40

following groups of bacteria is responsible for the input of new nitrogen into soils?

Nitrogen fixing bacteria

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41

\n Plants take up carbon dioxide through their roots.

False

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42

Carbon dioxide concentrations in the Earth’s atmosphere decrease during the northern hemisphere’s winter.

False

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43

Which of the following state factors is important to consider when we think about the influence of ecosystem engineers on soil development?

Organisms

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44

Water potential levels in tree

Soil is the least negative and increases in negativity as you go up

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45

Let’s say there was a drought in the Tennessee mountains last summer. Which of the following things would NOT be likely to happen?

The stomata will stay less open next summer.

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46

\n In Dr. Chapman’s WETFEET project research on mangroves and warming, the scientists expect that mangroves will overtake marshes in northeast Florida if warmer conditions with less freeze events continue.

True

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47

Which of these characteristics or processes does NOT help prevent cavitation in a tree?

wide stomatal apertures (openings)

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48

Which of the following is the element that plants use regulate stomatal opening and closing?

Potassium

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49

Obtaining mineral nitrogen is more energetically expensive for plants than symbiotic nitrogen fixation.

False

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50

During secondary growth ,which plant part is important for producing sugar transporting vasculature?

Vascular cambium

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51

You have to repot a plant in your dorm room. Using clay soil will require you to water the plant less often than if you use sandy soil.

True

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52

We talked about plant phenology and climate change in a Science News segment. Based on what you learned tell us which of the following statements is true.

Plants are leafing out earlier in the western United States because of warming

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53

\n Plant roots obtain cations like magnesium and calcium by pumping out hydrogen ions into the soil.

True

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54

Based on what you learned in lab, which of the following are reasonable water potential values  (MPa) for unwatered sunflowers, watered sunflowers, and conifers- in the right order.

\n -0.8, -0.6, -1.2

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55

In 1982, Drs. Jack Schultz and Ian Baldwin published a paper in Science presenting results that individual plants of the same species can communicate with each other to help defend against insect herbivores.  Would this be an example of an effector-mediated hypersensitive response, effector-mediated systemic acquired resistance, both, neither?

Effector-mediated systemic acquired resistance OR both

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56

\n Smaller xylem diameters are more likely to be found on plants that are not used to dealing with water stress.

False

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57

Does transpiration occur when stomata are closed?

No

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58

Members of Subphylum Vertebrata have a notochord that is always replaced with cartilaginous or bony vertebrae in development.

False

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59

Arthropods are well adapted to land. Why?

segmented exoskeleton

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60

Which tetrapod (mimber of the the Clade Tetrapoda) must live near water to reproduce?

Class Amphibia

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61

Which animal does not have hox genes?

sponge

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62

Why are animals in Phylum Platyhelminthes flat?

they use diffusion for gas and waste exchange

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63

Where do marsupials complete development?

\n in a pouch

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64

Male poison dart frogs carry baby tadpoles on their backs because they know the babies are theirs.

true

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65

\n Hydra have a sessile medusa stage.

false

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66

Why was the evolution of a fin skeleton important for early Tetrapods?

It is a key adaptation to gravity

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67

What host do trematodes (Schistosoma) use in their life cycle for asexual reproduction?

Snail

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68

Which animal is ectothermic?

Turtle

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69

What phylum of animal causes about half the gobal population of humans to have gastrointestinal infections, including pinworms, hookworms, and trichinosis?

Nematoda

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70

In deuterostome development, what does the blastopore turn into?

anus

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71

Release of the zooxanthellae from coral is reversible and does not cause the coral to die immediately.

true

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72

What is the most likely common ancestor of animals?

choanoflagellate

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73

\n Likely due to a very specialized key feature, which tetrapod (member of the Clade Tetrapoda) has the most species?

Class aves

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79

About 65 mya an asteroid hit the earth and caused global cooling. 75% of all species were lost. This was the start of the

"Age of Mammals"

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80

Using Optimal Foraging Theory, a starved (i.e., hungry) spider will most likely

spin a big web

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81

Some members of the Class Mammalia lay eggs, but they are not amniotic eggs.

false

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82

In class, we discussed a study by Davis et al. (2018) that suggested that it will take millions of years for mammals to recover from the current biodiversity crisis. Why?

their phylogenetic tree has been trimmed a lot

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83

Which mollusk group (Phylum Mollusca) has a closed circulatory system, complex brain, and developed sense organs?

cephalopod

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84
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85

Which differentiated tissues and organs does the ectoderm give rise to?

epidermis

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86

In pseudocoelomates the mesoderm lines the enture coelom.

false

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87

\n Dr. Vik spoke about his research on marine earwigs. In his lecture, he explained that male earwigs have curved cerci (a pair of forcep-like pincers on their abdomen). What are these used for?

intrasexual selection - competition for mates

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88

Members of the Subphylum Cephalochordata retain all key characteristics of Phylum Chordata as adults.

true

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89

Fixed action patterns stop when the sign stimulus is removed.

false

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90

At what stage in complete Arthropod metamorphosis does the adult exist?

after the pupal stage

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91

Members of the Phylum Annelida can regenrate even if all segments are damaged.

false

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92

\n When you are stung by a jelly fish, what cell is responsible?

cnidocyte

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93

\n A sponge uses amoebocytes to move water through pores into its body and collect food particles.

false

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94

What does class Chondrichthyes use for buoyancy?

oil-filled liver

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95

Dogs are often very food motivated, meaning they like treats and will often learn behaviors (e.g., sit, roll over) to earn them. What type of learning is this?

operant conditioning

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96

\n Cats have glands on their face that produce pheromones. When your cat rubs it's face on furnature in your house, what is the primary mode of communication it is doing?

chemical

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97

\n Palacio-Castro et al. (2022) used five decades of data on coral reefs to better understand coral bleaching and why some corals suffer less death and beaching when using high proportions of a particular algal symbiont called D. glynnili (Type 1 corals). As climate change continues to be a problem (i.e., high temperature events will become more frequent and hotter), what do you think will first happen to Type 3 corals (who have lower proportions of D. glynnili)?

Type 3 corals will be replaced by Type 1 corals

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98

\n In the amniotic egg, which specialized membrane exchanges gas across the membrane and shell?

chorion

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99

Not all animals are triploblastic. Some are diploblastic. What phyla are diploblastic?

Phylum Ctenophora and Phylum Cnidaria

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100

\n Your best friend, who you are not genetically related to, is having a bad day and you buy them lunch. What is driving this altruistic behavior?

reciprocal altruism

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