Lectures 5-6

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Gregor Mendel

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Gregor Mendel

worked with garden peas to test family resemblance and genes

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true breeding plants

when reproduce all offspring will look like parents (purple x purple = purple)

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non-true breeding plants

odd offspring (purple x purple = purple AND white)

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the basic cross

bred ture offspring of certain trait with one of different variation of same trait = hybrids

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P generation

parent generation (true breeding) (purple and white)

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cross fertilize

cross 2 tpes/ variations of a trait

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F1 generation

offspring of 1st cross (purple)

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self cross

2nd cross, F1s self fertilize

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F2 generation

self crossed offspring, color variation (3 purple, 1 white)

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dominant trait

captial letter, overriding effect of different variation (will appear visibly)

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recessive trait

lowercase letter, masked variation (present at gene level but not visibly seen) (only expressed when genotype is homologous)

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F3 generation

1/3 purple breed true, 2/3 purple didn’t

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1 element model

parents transmit information (genes) abouut traits to their offspring

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2 element model

each individual receives 2 copies (1 from each parent) of each factor (allele) to encode each trait

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3 element model

not all factors (alleles) are same, different combinations lead to different traits

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4 element model

two alleles dont blend, assemble randomly

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5 element model

the presence of an allele doesn’t guarantee it’ll be expressed (can be latent)

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homozygote

2 alleles are identical (true breeding)

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heterozygote

2 alleles are different (non-true breeding)

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genotype

alleles found in individual, AA =/ Aa

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phenotype

physical appearance of individual, AA (homozygous) =/ Aa (heterozygous)

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phenotype ratio

3:1

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genotype ratio

1:2:1 (1 homo dominant, 2 hetero, 1 homo recessive)

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Mendels 1st law of heredity

Principle of Segregation - 2 alleles segregate during gamete formation to be rejoined at random during fertilization (1 from each, latent traits)

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the punnett square

50% mom’s heterozygous gametes dominant/recessive, same for dad

<p>50% mom’s heterozygous gametes dominant/recessive, same for dad </p>
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Dihybrid cross

2 traits

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dihybrid ratio

9:3:3:1

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Mendels 2nd law of herdity

Principle of Independent Assortment - in a dihybrid cross the alleles of each gene assort independently

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gene linkage

2 genes linked on same chromosome will be passed down together but will only get offspring with same phenotypes as parents

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genes far apart on same chromosome

get segregated during meiosis recombination

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polygenic inheritence

phenotype trait attributable to 2 of more genes, quantitative/ continuously varying trait

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polygenic inheritence example

height with lots of variation and multiple traits controlling it and disease (difficult)

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pleiotropy

simgle gene affects 2 or more characteristics

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incomplete dominance

both alleles found in the genotypei

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incomplete codominance

a mixture of the alleles in the genotype visible in the phenotype

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environmental effects on gene expression

sickle cell anemia and decrease sensitivity of malaria

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epistasis

phenotype traits attributable to 2 or more genes that interact (1 modifies/ hides another)

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epistasis example

hair color and baldness, fur coat and amount of melanin

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codominance example

mice offspring with patches of black and grey fur

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number of human chromosomes

46, 23 from mom and 23 from dad

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how chromosomes are passed on

cell division that produces gametes

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karyotype

complete map set of chromosomes

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chromatids

before they replicate, sisters with identical info

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centromere

what holds 2 sisters together

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chromosomes

paired sister chromatids

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homologous pair

same chromosome from mom and dad, same type and genes

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why might homologous pair differ

may have different alleles

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mitosis phases

interphase, prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase

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interphase

DNA diffuses and replicates

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prophase

chromatin condenses into visible chromosomes with identical paired sister chromatids

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prometaphase

nuclear envelope breaks, microtubules go to poles/ opposite ends

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metaphase

chromosomes line up at equator, condensed and highly coiled (can get best visual)

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anaphase

sisters pulled apart, new daughter moves to poles

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telophase

cell cleaves in half, daughters enter interphase again separately

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Meiosis phases

early prophase , mid prophase , prometaphase, metaphase 1, anaphase 1, telophase 1, prophase 2, metaphase 2, anaphase 2, telophase 2

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early prophase

chromosomes condense

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mid prophase

homologous pairs join

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prometaphase

pairs cross over

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metaphase 1

pairs align at equator

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anaphase 1

homologous chromosomes move to poles (sisters dont separate)

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telophase 1

cell divides to form sister cells

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prophase 2

chromosomes recondense but DNA doesn’t replicate

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metaphase 2

centromeres line at equator

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anaphase 2

pulled apart and chromosomes move to poles

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telophase 2

chromosomes gather into nuclei and cell divides

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meiosis products

4 cells with nucleuses with chromosomes

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meiosis process

start with 2 DNA, divides 1st into normal amount of DNA then divides again into half as much as normal cell (gametes join)

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ploidy

number of copies of chromosomes

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haploid

a cell with one copy of each chromosome 1N

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diploid

cell with 2 copies of each chromosome 2N

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polyploid

more than 2 copies of each chromosome xN

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mitosis ploidy

2N to 4N to 2N

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meiosis ploidy

2N to 4N to 2N to 1N

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crossing over

homologous chromosome pairs (meiosis) have enzymes released that can break and rejoin chromatids

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recombination

DNA from non-sister chromatids can be exchange ie. dad chromosome with mom DNA

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likeliness of recombination

variable, some might have many or few

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recombination leads to

genetic variation (meiosis), reshufflings

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gene linkage

in F1 generation, genes are unlinked, 4 gamete combinations are produced (RY,Ry,rY,ry)

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all the following are true regarding meiosis except

gametes produced are diploids - are actually haploid

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Wilhelm Johannsen

created term gene as unit for inherited traits

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Thomas Hunt Morgan

genes rest on chromosomes

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George Beadle and Edward Tatum

1 gene codes for 1 enzyme

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Oswald Avery, Maclyn McCarty and Colin Macleod

genes are made of DNA

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Rosalind Franklin

structure of DNA (helical), Photo 51

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the double helix

DNA comprised of 2 intertwined strands of nucleotids

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nucleotids fixed along

2 helical backbones made of repeating sugar and phosphate units

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nucleotids held together by

hydrogen bonds between nucleotids, paired specifically together

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4 nucleotides

Adenine (A), Thymine (T), Cytosine (C), Guanine (G)

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adenine forms

2 hydrogen bonds with thymine

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cyotsine forms

3 hydrogen bonds with guanine

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how DNA replicates

single parental strand with 2 chains can replicate to 2 daughter strands with exact same information that’s rarely lost

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semi econservative replication

produces molecule with both old and new DNA, each molecule contains 1 complete old strand and 1 new one

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DNA replication

helix unzips, breaking bonds between paired nucleotids, number of enzzymes bring new nucleotides to the parental chain and form new parent chains

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DNA polymerase

match existing nucleotides on parental chain with complementary bases, to form bond between new pairs

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the central dogma

portions of DNA get converted into RNA that provides intstructions to cell for production of proteins, who do work of the cell

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RNA

single strand of DNA

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DNA to RNA

transcription

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transcription

works similar to DNA replication

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RNA to protein

translation

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translation

RNA sequence used to synthesize a polypeptide (protein)

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