1. Overview of the Nervous System

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101 Terms

1

central nervous system

brain, brainstem, spinal cord

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peripheral nervous system

nerves extending out from brainstem and spinal cord

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3

peripheral nervous system breakdown

autonomic, somatic

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4

autonomic breakdown

sympathetic, parasympathetic

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5

sympathetic

fight, flight, freeze

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6

parasympathetic

rest and digest

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7

CNS bone protections

cranium and vertebral column

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8

CNS tissues/fluid protections

Meninges, cerebrospinal fluid

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9

gray matter

cell bodies

on the outside

process information

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10

white matter

axons

inside

carry signals to other neurons/structures

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11

Frontal lobe function

motor, basic language, higher level cognition (executive function)

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12

Parietal lobe function

somatosensory, attention

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13

Occipital lobe function

visual processing (perception and recognition)

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14

Temporal lobe function

auditory, language comprehension, prosody, recognition of objects/faces, memory, thought elaboration

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15

Broca’s aphasia location

inferior frontal gyrus

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16

Apraxia

frontal lobe

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17

personality/mood

frontal lobe

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18

abulic/apathetic syndrome

frontal lobe

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19

R/L hemiparesis

frontal lobe

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20

R/L motor movement

frontal lobe

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21

Right Hemisphere Brain Damage

frontal lobe

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22

R/L sensation

parietal lobe

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23

R/L hemianesthesia

parietal lobe

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24

RHD left neglect

parietal lobe

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25

tactile agnosia

parietal lobe

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26

Wernicke’s aphasia

parietal lobe

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27

sensory integration

parietal lobe

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28

visual-spatial

parietal lobe

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29

constructional deficits

parietal lobe

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30

RHD

temporal lobe

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31

Wernicke’s aphasia

temporal lobe

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32

anterograde amnesia

temporal lobe

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33

impaired audition

temporal lobe

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34

visual perception

occipital lobe

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35

visual recognition

occipital lobe

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36

visual agnosia

occipital lobe

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37

homonymous hemianopsia

occipital lobe

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38

prosopagnosia lobe location

occipital lobe & temporal lobe

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39

cortical blindness

occipital lobe

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40

visual hallucinations

occipital lobe

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41

dysexecutive syndrome location

dorsolateral frontal lobe

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42

dysexecutive syndrome symptoms

apathy, diminished drive, cognitive deficits, confabulation, appear depressed

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43

pseudopsychopathic syndrome location

orbitofrontal

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44

abulic/apathetic symptoms

lack of care, limited initiation of behavior

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45

dorsolateral prefrontal lobe damage

difficulty with planning, problem solving, thinking, reasoning, executive functioning

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46

orbital/ventral prefrontal lobe damage

personality disorders, emotional disintegration, impulsive social behaviors

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47

medial prefrontal lobe damage

attention, motivation, responsiveness

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48

inferior, posterior frontal region damage

non-fluent aphasia, spared comprehension, word retrieval, apraxia

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49

body schema location

parietal lobe

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50

spatial orientation location

parietal lobe

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51

hemianesthesia meaning

contralateral sensory loss

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52

visual (where) memory impairment

parietal lobe

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53

anosognosia definition

impairs a person's ability to understand and perceive their illness

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54

apragmatism

parietal lobe

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55

left neglect definition

ATTENTION disorder

failure to respond to people, sounds, and objects to the left of midline

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56

primary auditory cortex

Heschl’s gryi

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57

Hippocampus function

creation/storage of new memories

consolidation of memories for long term storage

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58

temporal lobe damage

reduced phonetic discrimination, impaired processing of nonverbal info, seizures

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59

prosopagnosia damage

right fusiform gyrus

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60

homonymous hemianopsia definition

visual field deficit in the same halves of each eye

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61

number of layers of neuron cell bodies in cortex

6

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62

Brodman’s areas

represent different cellular organizations, associated with different functions

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63

primary motor strip location

precentral gyrus

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64

primary sensory strip location

post-central gyrus

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65

hearing organization

tonotopic (organized by frequency)

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66

vision organization

retinotopic (organized by location of receptive field)

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67

proximal

towards point of attachment

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68

distal

away from point of attachment

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69

rostral

front

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70

caudal

back

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71

afferent

towards CNS

sensory

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72

efferent

away from CNS

motor

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73

transient

comes and goes

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74

dorsal brain

top of head

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75

ventral brain

bottom of head

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76

longitudinal fissure

separates right and left hemispheres

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77

central sulcus

separates frontal and parietal lobes

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78

sylvian fissure

separates temporal and parietal lobes

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79

insula

cortex deep in sylvian fissure

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80

cingulate gyrus

limbic system

emotions and memory

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81

corpus callosum

white matter tract connecting L/R hemispheres

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82

thalamus function

sensory relay station

interconnected with brainstem, cerebellum, cortex

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83

hypothalamus function

autonomic nervous system

regulates body systems (hunger, thirst, sleep, drive)

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84

anterior frontal

higher level cognition

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85

motor systems

frontal

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86

expressive language

frontal

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87

expressive emotional prosody

frontal

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88

primary sensory strip

parietal

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89

attention, body schema, visual pathway (where)

parietal

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90

reading/writing language

parietal

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91

emotional prosody comprehension

parietal

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92

language processing

superior temporal

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93

semantic processing

temporal

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94

language comprehension

temporal

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95

emotional prosody comprehension

temporal

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96

memory, visual what, olfactory processing

temporal lobe

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97

basal ganglia

deep nuclei connected to motor and sensory system

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98

caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra

basal ganglia components

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99

peduncle

white matter tracts that attach cerebellum

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100

cerebellum function

motor control

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