Nutritin T2

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Digestion, Absorption, Transportation and Metabolism

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Nursing

111 Terms

1

Digestion, Absorption, Transportation and Metabolism

food being broken down into simpler substances, what are the 4 main steps in this process?

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digestion

Chemical and mechanical process of food being broken down in the GI tract to release nutrients in forms that the body can use and absorb

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absorption

The process by which nutrients are taken into the cells that line the GI tract

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4

transport

The movement of nutrients through the circulatory system from one area of the body to another

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metabolism

The sum of the vast number of chemical changes in the cell that ultimately produce the materials that are essential for energy, tissue building and metabolic controls

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6

Mechanical - mastication

Chemical - Salivary glands secrete saliva, Amylase

two types of digestion that occurs before absorption can proceed

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7

Chyme

After food has gone through the digestion process in the mouth and esophagus, and enters the stomach, it turns in a semiliquid acid/ food mic called _______

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8

Wave-like contractions that either move food through the digestive track or mixing action which helps mix food with digestive juices.

What is peristalsis?

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9
  • Hydrochloric Acid & buffer ions - maintain pH

  • Enzymes - breakdown

  • Mucus - lubricates and protects

  • Water and electrolytes - assist in carrying

  • Bile - emulsifies fat

Gastrointestinal secretions work together to make chemical digestion possible what are the major types of secretions?

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10

Emulsifies fat into smaller pieces to expose more surface area for the action of fat splitting enzymes. Aids fat digestion and absorption

what does bile contain (small intestines)

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11

Mucus

______protects the lining of the stomach and intestines from strong acid.

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12

Pancreas, Gallbladder and Liver

3 accessory organs that assist the small intestine in the digestion process

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13

Secretin - controls acidity and secretion of enzymes from pancreas, keeps environment alkaline pH greater than 8 pancreatic enzymes can work

The hormones stimulates the pancreases to release secretions:

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14

Simple diffusion, Facilitated Diffusion, Active transport, Pinocytosis

types of absorption processes occur in the small intestine

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15

when molecules spread from an area of high to an area of low concentration

simple diffusion

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Movement of specific molecules across cell membranes through protein channels

facilitated diffusion

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17

the movement of ions or molecules across a cell membrane into a region of higher concentration, assisted by enzymes and requiring energy.

active transport

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the ingestion of liquid into a cell by the budding of small vesicles from the cell membrane.

pinocytosis

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19

Water: main absorptive task of large intestine is to absorb water; small amount remains in feces

Dietary fiber: contributes important bulk to help form feces

Nutrients: absorbed through lymph or blood

primary function of the large intestine in regards to the absorption process

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20

Calorie: Energy in food and energy expanded in physical activity

Kilocalorie: (1000 calories) used by nutritional scientists

Joule: International Unit.

unit of measurement is used when referring to the amount of energy in a food:

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21

REE - resting energy expenditure

Basal energy expenditure - sum of internal activity at total rest

the body is at complete rest, it is still using energy to maintain life - the amount of energy the body needs to maintain life, while at this rest is called…

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22

thermic effect of food

estimate of the energy required to process the food you eat

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23

Glycogen

stored energy the body uses first

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24

Muscle mass

energy is the last to be utilized after all other sources have been depleted

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25

Weight gain (extreme = obesity)

food intake is greater than your energy output

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26

weight loss ( extreme = anorexia)

energy output is greater than your food intake

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Glycogen: 12 - 24 hour reserve in liver, muscle, quickly depleted if not replenished

Adipose tissue: Varies by individual, most concentrated/ efficient form of energy

Muscle mass: used during long period of fasting or starvation

Sources of stored energy

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28

metabolism, normal body function, regulation of body temperature and tissue growth and repair

energy output

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determined by 1) basal energy expenditure, Physical activity and thermic effect of food

total energy demands

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body energy output

food energy intake =

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31

A vital organic substance that is not a macronutrient that is necessary to perform a specific metabolic function or to prevent a deficiency disease. The body cannot manufacture it in sufficient quantities so diet must provide it.

For something to be classified as a vitamin, what must it do?

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32

Aids vision, growth, tissue strength, and immunity

Function of Vitamin A (Retinol)

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33

Fish liver oil, liver, egg yolks, butter cream, dark green leafy vegetables, dark orange vegetables and fruit

Sources of Vitamin A (retinol)

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34

compromised vision, growth, reproduction, immune system and epithelial tissue

Deficiency of Vitamin A (retinol)

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35

Blood clotting and bone development

Function of: Vitamin K

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36

Green leafy vegetables

Sources of Vitamin K

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37

Primary deficiency uncommon; may be secondary to another clinical condition. infants routinely receive vitamin K injections at birth to prevent hemorrhaging

Deficiency of Vitamin K

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38

Connective tissue, general body metabolism, antioxidant function

Function of: Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)

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39

citrus fruit, bell peppers, kiwi, berries, broccoli, tomato juice, other green and yellow vegetables

Sources of Vitamin C

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40

Tissue bleeding joint bleeding, susceptibility to bone fracture, poor wound healing, bleeding gums and tooth loss, scurvy

Deficiency of Vitamin C

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41

DNA synthesis, cell division, glycine synthesis reduction of blood homocysteine concentration, gene expression

Function of: Folate

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42

green, leafy vegetables, orange juice, legumes and chicken liver fortified products

Source of Folate

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43

birth defects, poor growth in children, weakness depression and neuropathy

Deficiency of Folate

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44

DNA synthesis, cell division

Function of: Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)

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45

Beef liver, lean meat, clams, oyster, herring, crab

Source of Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)

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46

due to poor absorption; age, fatigue, nausea and anorexia, hematologic, neurologic and digestive manifestation is advanced cases

Deficiency of Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)

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47

Thiamin (B1)

alcoholics at risk to be deficient in:

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48

phytochemicals

Bioactive plant compounds found in fruits, vegetables, grains and other plant foods

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49

product (other than tabaco) that has following characteristics

  • Intended to supplement diet

  • Contain 1 or more dietary ingredient (vitamins, minerals, herbs)

  • Intended to be take PO - pill, capsule, tab, liquid

  • Labeled as being dietary supplement

nutrient supplementation? & What does it contain?

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50
  • pregnancy + Lactation = increase demand, reduces neural tube defect (folic acid)

  • Infants, Children, adolescents = Vitamin D

  • Older adults = Vitamin D and B12

groups of people are recommended for nutrient supplementation

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51

7 major minerals

How many major minerals are there?

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18

There is ___ trace minerals

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53

Calcium

mineral found in the human body

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54

Bone & tooth formation, blood clotting and muscle and nerve action, metabolic reaction

Function of: Calcium

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55

Milk and milk products, Green vegetables, fish with bones, and fortified food

Sources of Calcium

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56

hypocalcemia & osteoporosis

Deficiency of Calcium

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57

function: Water balance, muscle action, nutrient absorption

Function of: Sodium

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58

Table salt, cured meat, canned soup, processed food

Sources of Sodium

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59

hyponatremia - rare

Deficiency of Sodium

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60

Water balance, metabolic reactions, muscle action insulin release, blood pressure

Function of: Potassium

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61

unprocessed foods: fruit (oranges and bananas) vegetable (potatoes and leaf green) fish, whole grain, legumes, seeds, milk products

Sources of Potassium

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hypokalemia prolonged vomiting and diarrhea, severe malnutrition

Defeciency of Potassium

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Function: maintain water acid-base balance, digestion, respiration

Sources: table salt

Deficiency: excessive vomiting

Function, Sources and Deficiency of: Chloride

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Function: preventing dental caries

Sources: crab, shrimp, raisins, grape juice, hot breakfast, cereal, tea contain high concentration

Function & Source of: Fluoride

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65

Potassium, Chloride and Sodium

3 minerals that regulate our bodies water balance

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66

Thirst

How do our bodies tell us to maintain hydration?

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67

To maintain a balance and it carries out toxins

Why must the body excrete water in the urine?

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Cations: Sodium, Calcium, Magnesium

Anions: Chloride, Bicarbonate, Phosphate, Sulfate

examples of electrolytes:

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69
  • Osmosis

  • Diffusion

  • Facilitated Diffusion

  • Filtration

  • Active Transport

  • Pinocytosis

ways water moves across membranes in the body

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70

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) & Vasopressin

Water retention happens because of _____

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71

Transport

process by which nutrients are taken into the vascular and lymphatic system is

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72

Enzymes

substance is responsible for breaking down food in the digestion process

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73

Improper function of the gastroesophageal sphincter.

One of the common causes of heartburn is:

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74

How well the body can absorb a nutrient.

Bioavailability is best defined as:

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75

Peristalsis

During digestion, the major muscle action that moves the food mass forward in regular rhythmic waves is called:

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76

Lubricates and protects the GI lining.

Mucus is an important GI secretion because it:

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77

A gastric enzyme that acts on protein.

Pepsin is:

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78

A fat-emulsifying agent.

Bile is an important secretion that is:

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79

The lymphatic system by the way of the villi lacteals.

The route of fat absorption is:

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80

Carbohydrates

the body's primary fuel

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81

Fat

highest caloric density

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82

True.

T or F: lean body mass has the greatest effect on basal metabolic rate

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83

Physical Activity

most variable component of total energy expenditure for any given person

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84

Measure energy input and output.

kilocalorie is used to:

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85

Increased energy needs.

An overactive thyroid causes:

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86

Butter

highest energy value per unit of weight:

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87

To act as an antioxidant.

one of the functions of vitamins

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88

Catalysts

Enzymes and coenzymes control specific chemical reactions by acting as

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89

In the blood-clotting process.

The earliest discovered function of vitamin K is

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90

Vitamin B12

Cobalamin is the chemical name for which vitamin

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91

Green peppers, strawberries, and oranges.

When an increase of Vitamin C is needed, you would need to eat:

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92

Functional food

A food with added nutrients through fortification or enrichment is considered

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93

Thiamin

Beriberi is the deficiency disorder that is associated with which vitamin?

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94

25

____ out of 118 in the periodic table are essential to human life

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95

Chloride

a major mineral:

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96

Fluoride

a trace element:

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97

Sodium

most plentiful mineral in the body

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98

Relative amounts in the body.

Minerals are classified according to their

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99

Calcium

Which mineral has the following functions: blood clotting, muscle and nerve action, and bone and teeth formation?

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100

Fluoridation of the public water supply in very small amounts helps to prevent dental caries.

A known function of fluoride in human nutrition is dental health. Which of the following statements correctly describes this relation?

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