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137 Terms

1

global change

human induced transformation of the global enviornment

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2

enviornment

external conditions that an organism lives in like social, economic, physical.

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3

examples of global issues

climate change, energy crisis, world hunger, pollution, population explosion

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4

global issues charecteristics

global or large-scale effects, persistent, worldwide attention, many moving parts, inter-related to other global issues, no simple solution, interdisciplinary knowledge, interdependence between countries, solutions have trade-offs, challenge status quo

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5

institution

structures required for functioning society

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6

system

interdependent parts enclosed in a defined boundary

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7

earth sytems

biosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, atmosphere

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8

stratosphere

ozone layer

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9

troposphere

weather

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10

atmosphere

controlling global energy balance and climate change

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11

hydrosphere

fresh water avalibility

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12

cryosphere

sea levels rise

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13

lithosphere

source of all raw materials

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14

pedosphere

platform for food production

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15

biosphere

photosynthesis and the carbon cycle

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16

anthroposphere

environment that is made or modified by humans

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17

earth is a

complex system and closed system as a whole

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18

closed system

energy exchanged with outside, matter stays inside

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19

open system

energy and matter exchanged with outside

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20

biogeochemical cycle

pathway that describes how substance moves through spheres of earth system

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21

flux

flows the substance

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22

energy

drives the cycle

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23

reservoirs

holds substance

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24

perturbations

disturbance in the flow of substance, can be natural or human caused

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25

equilibrium

steady state or cyclical

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26

perturbation example

landslide, pollution, CO2 concentration

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27

response

system’s reaction to distrubances

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28

types of system responses

linear, feedback, non-linear (exponential, episodic, catostrophic)

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29

linear response

response is proportionate to disturbance

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30

feedback loop

response to perturbation effects magnitude of perturbation

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31

positive feedback loop

increased magnitude, exponential

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32

negative feedback loop

decreased magnitude, episodic

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33

spatial scale

extent to which something occurs

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34

spheres interact via cycles

composed of reservoirs, fluxes and energy

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35

system thresholds

are tipping points that can lead to sudden changes

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36

planetary boundaries

9 boundaries humans must respect

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37

weather

current state of atmosphere

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38

climate

statistical description of weather over long period of time(typically over 30 years)

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39

Robert Heinlein’s quote

climate is what you expect, weather is what you get

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40

climate change

significant and lasting change in statistical distribution of weather

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41

climate change has been detected through

global surface temps, precipitation, extreme weather events, cryospheric changes, sea level

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42

without atmoshphere

all radiation would be reflected or emitted back

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43

with atmosphere

some radiation is absorbed

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44

atmospheric gases

also emit radiation, thermal and evaporation make up the difference

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45

forcing the climate system

change amount of energy from sun, change concentration of greenhouse gases and aerosols, change surface properties

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46

land use change

darker and drier surface absorbs more energy and turns it into heat

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47

mechanisms of climate chnage

natural greenhouse effect, force climate system, concentration and rate of change of CO2 is unprecedented

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48

greenhouse gas

trap heat in the atmosphere and warm the planet

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49

greenhouse gas effect

heat trapped near earth due to greenhouse gases

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50

A-O general circulation models

show observed changes in earth are human caused

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51

water cycle is a

closed system

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52

avg concentration of CO2

417ppm

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53

greenhouse effect other than CO2 with large effect

CH4 methane

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54

natural resource

source or supply that occurs in nature without human action

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55

material resources

of use to individuals and society

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56

flows of energy

can be harnessed for useful purposes (solar, hydro)

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57

attributes of the enviornment

contribute something of value like pollination (ecosystem services)

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58

classification of natural resources

basis or origin, stage of development, renewability

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59

biotic

living and organic

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60

abiotic

non-living and non-organic

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61

actual

surveyed and currently exploited

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62

reserve

surveyed and can be exploited in future

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63

non-renewable

form slowly or non-naturally (fossil fuels, metals, minerals)

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64

renewable

form equally fast or faster than they are used (soil, water, land)

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65

exhaustive vs inexhaustible

finite vs will not run out soon

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66

factors that can change available time of resources

new reserves, new technology, change in economic conditions

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67

resource cycle

extraction/harvest, concentration/purification, production of goods, consumption of goods, end of usefulness, reuse/recycling, waste disposal, waste assimilation into environment

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68

factors that can change recycle practices

scarcity of original resource, technology, reusing is cheaper

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69

reuse/recycling types

produce primary resource, produce secondary resource

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70

sink

part of the environment used for disposal of valueless material

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71

waste

something the owner no longer wants

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72

recycle

converts material that lost their value into new materials

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73

most natural resources are

exhaustable

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74

objective of environmental resource management

manage interaction and impact of humans on the enviornment

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75

annual extraction of materials since 1970

gone up from 22 to 70 billion tons, trade is the main reason why

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76

global material use has gone up

due to consumption

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77

material productivity

economic activity per unit of natural resources extracted(kg)

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78

material intensity

natural resources extracted (kg) per unit of economic activity

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79

how does material intensity lower in a better economy but the world is higher in material intensity

switch from material efficient economies like japan and europe to less material efficient ones like India and china

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80

impact =

population x affluence x technology

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81

affluence

average consumption per person (gdp per capita)

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82

technology

how resource intensive production of affluence is

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83

IPAT framework

the main drivers of human impact on enviornment

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84

time it takes for a population to double

70/population

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85

the great transformation

transformation of ecosphere from it natural state by human action

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86

sustainable development

meets the needs of the present without compromising ability of future generations

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87

hunter gatherer society

altered environment, depleted it and moved on

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88

agrarian society

domesticated plants and animals, increased efficiency, larger populations

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89

industrial revolution

steam engines fueled by coal, factories and transportation systems

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90

anthropocene

human activities became major geological force

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91

growth rate =

birth rate - death rate + migration

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92

demographic transition model

transition from high birth and detah rates to low birth and death rates through industrialiation

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93

global population growth is

decreasing and 11b predicted for 2100

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94

high stationary

pre industrial, death and birth rates are high

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95

early expanding

decline in death rate

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96

late expanding

decline in birth rate

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97

low stationary

both birth and death rates are low

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98

declining

birth rate below death rate

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99

canada dtm

stage 4, low stationary

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100

CLEAN fresh water

is exhaustible

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