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Cranium

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157 Terms

1

Cranium

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2

Clavicle

act as a brace when we hold our arms out, anchors muscles, and attaches to the sternum medially and the scapula laterally

<p>act as a brace when we hold our arms out, anchors muscles, and attaches to the sternum medially and the scapula laterally</p>
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3

Scapula

attaches to the rib cage and vertebral column by the muscle, allows for more mobility and flexibility, and allows the arms to move laterally

<p>attaches to the rib cage and vertebral column by the muscle, allows for more mobility and flexibility, and allows the arms to move laterally</p>
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4

Cervical vertebrae

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5

True ribs

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False ribs

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7

Humerus

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8

Radius

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9

Ulna

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10

Sternum

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11

Ilium

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12

Sacrum

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13

Coxal

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14

Pubis

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15

Coccyx

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16

Pubic arch

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17

Ischium

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18

Carpals

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19

Metacarpals

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20

Phalanges

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21

Femur

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22

Patella

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23

Tibia

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24

Fibula

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25

Tarsals

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26

Metatarsals

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27

Axil skeleton

center of the body

<p>center of the body</p>
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28

Appendicular skeleton

appendages

<p>appendages</p>
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29

Calcaneus bone

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30

Talus bone

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31

Zygomatic bone

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32

Parietal bones

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33

Ethmoid bone

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34

Lacrimal bone

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35

Nasal bones

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36

Frontal bones

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37

Maxillary bones

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38

Occipital bones

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39

Mandible

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40

Temporal bones

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41

Thoracic vertebrae

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42

Lumbar vertebrae

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43

Sacral vertebrae

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44

Cartilage

flexible connective tissue

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45

Ligaments

short bands of tough, yet flexible, dense connective tissue that can connect 2 bones and stabilize joints

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46

Tendons

Cords of dense connective tissue, connect muscle to bone

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47

Joints

articulations or junctions between 2 or more bones and include all other components, aid in movement and flexibility

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48

Thumb

is opposable, has a special joint with metacarpal 1 and 2 phalanges

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49

Pelvic girdle

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50

Pectoral girdle

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51

Thoracic cage

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52

Proximal epiphysis

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53

Spongy bone

small needle-like pieces of bone and open space, in most bones, makes blood cells and stores fat, lessens bone weight

<p>small needle-like pieces of bone and open space, in most bones, makes blood cells and stores fat, lessens bone weight</p>
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54

Epiphyseal line

where the plate used to be once it is fused by osseous tissue, in adults after growth is finished

<p>where the plate used to be once it is fused by osseous tissue, in adults after growth is finished</p>
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55

Periosteum

fibrous connective tissue, covers shaft of long bones

<p>fibrous connective tissue, covers shaft of long bones</p>
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56

Compact bone

dense, smooth, and homogeneous, in all bones, hard external layer of bones, surrounds the medullary cavity, provides protection and strength

<p>dense, smooth, and homogeneous, in all bones, hard external layer of bones, surrounds the medullary cavity, provides protection and strength</p>
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57

Medullary cavity

full of yellow marrow, cavity in the shaft of a long bone, stores adipose tissue

<p>full of yellow marrow, cavity in the shaft of a long bone, stores adipose tissue</p>
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58

Diaphysis

made entirely of compact bone

<p>made entirely of compact bone</p>
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59

Distal epiphysis

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60

Endosteum

membrane lining the inner surface of the long bone bony wall, helps bones grow, repair, and remodel

<p>membrane lining the inner surface of the long bone bony wall, helps bones grow, repair, and remodel</p>
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61

Yellow bone marrow

inner cavity of long bones, made of adipose tissue, in children forms blood cells

<p>inner cavity of long bones, made of adipose tissue, in children forms blood cells</p>
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62

Perforating (sharpey's) fibers

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63

Nutrient arteries

narrow cavity of long bones through nutrient canals, forms the central arteries

<p>narrow cavity of long bones through nutrient canals, forms the central arteries</p>
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64

Articular cartilage

covers the epiphyses of long bones, made of glassy hyaline cartilage, provides a smooth surface that decreases friction at joints

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65

Epiphyses

ends of long bones, a thin layer of compact bone, encloses spongy bone, allows long bone to move in joints

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66

Diaphysis

the shaft on the of the bone that makes up the majority of the long bones

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67

Red bone marrow

in cavities in spongy bone of flat bones and epiphyses of some long bones, contain blood stem cells that can become red blood cells, white blood cells or platelets

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68

Nerves in the bone

found along blood vessels, in periosteum, volkmann's canals, marrow, osteochondral, growth plate, and synovial membrane, connection to the nervous system, spatial orientation pain temperature and painful stimuli

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69

Organic matrix

gives the bones strength and flexibility, calcium and collagen

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70

Nutrient route through a bone

periosteum, osteon, central canal, lamellae, lacum, osteocyte

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71

Canaliculi

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72

Central canal

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73

Lacuna

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74

Phalanges (T)

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75

Connective tissue

the majority is bone (osseous) tissue but cartilage and dense connective tissue cover the bone’s external surface

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76

Nervous tissue

tissue in bone, has nerves

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77

Epithelial tissue

in the bone blood vessels, provides nourishment

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78

Muscle tissue

skeletal muscle tissue, attached to the bone

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79

Skeleton

a framework holding up the entire body, protects the most vital organs, bones used as levers to produce movements, stores minerals and energy, forms hormones and blood cells

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80

Hematopoiesis

blood cell formation, occurs in the red bone marrow of certain bones

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81

Nutrients in bones

calcium and phosphate (released into the blood when needed), energy stored in the form of fat in yellow bone marrow

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82

Long bones

longer than they are wide, tend to have a long shaft with either end being a bit wider, arm bones, hand bones, leg bones, and footbones

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83

Short bones

more cube-shaped, tend to be as wide as they are long, provide support and stability with little movement, carpals and tarsals

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84

sesamoid bone

a type of short bone, patella, a special type of short bone, means to be shaped like a sesame seed, embedded within tendons

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85

Flat bones

thin and flat, often with a little curve, have a large surface area for attaching to muscles, sternum, shoulder blades, ribs, and cranial bones

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86

Irregular bones

every other bone, have a highly specialized shape and structure, coxal and vertebrae

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87

Structure of bone

dense and smooth layer of compact (cortical) bone tissue on the outside surrounding the more porous spongy bone tissue on the inside, bones usually have distinct markings due to ligaments and muscles

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88

Compact bone

made up of osteons, lamella with tiny slats and collagen, and haversian canals

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89

Osteons

the basic structural unit, long cylinders that act as tiny weight-bearing pillars in the bone

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90

Lamella

hollow tubes grouped together to make compact bone, filled with tiny salts and collagen fibers that allow the bone to resist torsion and stress, the salt is hard, the collagen is rubbery and durable

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91

Haversian canal

runs through the middle of each osteon and contains small blood vessels for nourishment and nerve fibers for signaling

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92

Spongy bone

less organized than compact bone, no osteons, have trabeculae

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93

Trabeculae

in spongey bone, tiny bone struts that are key for helping the bone to resist stress: also where bone marrow is

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94

Projections

a type of bone marking, where muscles and ligaments attach

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95

Surfaces

a type of bone marking, forms joints

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96

Depressions and openings

a bone marking, for blood vessels and nerves to run through

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97

Osteocytes

maintain healthy bone structure, housed in the lacunae- gaps between the lamellae, monitor and maintain quality in response to stimuli

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98

Osteoblasts

build and construct bones by calcifying bone as it forms

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99

Osteoclasts

critical in the regeneration of the bone through bone remodeling by absorbing bone tissue wherever it is not needed or is degenerating

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100

Ossification (osteogenesis)

the process of bone tissue formation, the key to forming your skeleton as an embryo, essential for bone growth from childhood up to early adulthood, used for bone remodeling and repair later in life, articular cartilage and epiphyseal plates don't go through this

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