ANS 120 A Exam 2

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estrous cycle

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Biology

128 Terms

1

estrous cycle

all physiological and behavioral changes from one ovulation to the next consecutive ovulation

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2

estrus

period of receptivity to be bred by the male

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3

ovum

female gamete

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4

follicle

ovum and all the cells that support the ovum developed in an ovary

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5

ovulation

release of ovum from the follicle

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6

gestation

prenatal development of an organism in uterus

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7

parturition

birth process

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8

oviposition

(avian or platypus and echnida) process of laying an egg

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9

incubation

embryotic development outside body

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10

bicornuate

type of reproductive tract typically seen in livestock, cats, and dogs

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11

biocornuate reproductive system

  • 2 ovaries

  • 2 oviducts

  • 2 uterine horns

  • 1 uterine body

  • 1 cervix

  • Vagina

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12

ovary exocrine function

production and release of ovum

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13

ovary endocrine function

production and release of specific hormones

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14

estrogen (E2)

hormone of estrus, prepare reproductive tract for potential gamete fertilization

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15

E2 and T

both required for ovum development, involved with follice

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16

corpus leteum

cells of follicle after ovulation, has progesterone (P4) which is the hormone of pregnancy

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17

oviduct

transport of ovum and sperm, site of fertilization

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18

oviduct nutrition

provides oviduct fluid which provides nutrients for embryo while in transport to uterus

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19

uterus

transport of sperm from uterine body to oviduct by smooth muscle contractions, site of gestation including placental attachment

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20

uterus nutrition

embryo nutrients (called uterine milk) until placental attachment embryotic tissues to uterine wall

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21

uterine endocrine

several hormones

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22

partuition process

uterus provides smooth muscle contractions

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23

cervix function

protection of the uterine enviornment from pathogens and microorganisms

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24

cervix is open during estrus

high amounts of mucus - provides lubrication of vagine, large amount of flow outward to decrease potential microorganisms from enterine, open during partuition

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25

vagina reproductive function

semen deposition in most species (exception: swine - deposited in uterus)

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26

placenta function

exchange of products between the dam and the offspring (nutrients, metabolic waste)

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27

amnion

inner sac

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28

chorio allentois sac

outer sac (water breaking)

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29

fetus

an embryo attached to the uterine wall

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30

diffuse attachment

placenta attaches throughout the uterus of dam (horse, pig)

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31

zonary attachment

regional diffuse attachment. the attachment is diffuse, but only in a band or strip of the placenta to the uterus (dog, cat)

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32

cotyledonary attachment

placenta attaches at specific sites on uterus (cow, sheep, goat)

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discoid attachment

single disc shaped attachment (primates)

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34

parturition stage 1

final prepatory - uterine contractions, cervical dilation, repositioning of fetus

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35

parturition stage 2

delivery of fetus

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36

parturition stage 3

removal of placenta

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37

dystocia

difficulty in parturition process

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38

causes of dystocia

birth weight, size of dam, condition of dam, malpresentation

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39

avian reproductive tract

  • 1 left ovary

  • 1 left oviduct

  • infudibulum

  • magnum

  • isthmus

  • testes

  • epididymus

  • vas deferms

  • accessory glands

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40

avian ovary

yolk with ovum (energy, mineral, vitamins, some protein)

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41

infundibulum

sperm nests

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42

magnum

albumen added (protein) and support structure

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43

isthmus

shell membrane is added

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44

ferus/shell gland

shell formation/ polar salts - pigment cell: color of cloaca

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45

testes exocrine function

gametes sperm

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46

seminiferous tubules

sperm production

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47

sperm parts

head, midpiece, and principle piece

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48

testes endocrine function

E2 and T

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49

epididymus

  1. sperm transport- moving sperm from testes to cava epididymus

  2. nutrition - sperm

  3. maturation process

  4. storage for ejaculation

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50

vas deferms

transfer sperm from epididymis to the urethra

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51

accessory glands function

produce accessory fluid

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52

types of accessory glands

  • seminal vesicles

  • prostate

  • cowpers gland

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53

semen

sperm and accessory fluids

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54

vasular penis

  • corpus cavernosum

  • tunica albiginima

  • increas blood, increases size, diameter, and stiffness

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55

corpus cavernosum

vascular (blood) - spongey material to allow blood influx

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56

tunicia albiginima

(TA) connective tissue

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57

fibrous penis

  • connective tissue

  • only a few places for blood influx

  • length and diameter don't change, only stiffness

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58

bull testes

3 miles of tubules

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59

sperm head

DNA

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60

sperm midpiece

mitochondrial helix

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61

sperm principle piece

mobility

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62

sperm survival in female tract

mammals - 48-72 hours chickens - 35 dats turkey - 75 days

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63

genetics

used to maintain endangered species

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64

genetic change

change the animal to fit our needs

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65

P = G + E

phenotype - physical appearance genotype - genetic makeup e - enviornmental effects

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gene expression

simple mendelian genetics dominant recessive incomplete dominance

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gene

DNA that codes for a specific substance

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allele's

2 subcomponent of DNA -> gene

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P

dominant

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p

recessive

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PP

homozygous dominant

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pp

homozygous recessive

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Pp

heterozygous

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74

qualitative traits

few genes, discreet classes, yes/no

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75

quantitative traits

many genes, expression over a range (weight, height, etc.)

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76

inbreeding

mating individuals more related than the average of the population

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77

linebreeding

concentrate genes of a particular ancestor

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78

outbreeding

mating individuals less related than the average of the population

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79

outbreeding types

within breed, crossbreeding, crossing species

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80

inbreeding facts

  • basis for all breeds of domestic animals

  • mating of individuals more closely related than the average population

  • does not increase or cause mutation

  • increase of expression by increasing homozygosity

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81

heterosis

expression of the offspring in a iven trait is higher than the average of the parental breeds

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82

crossbreeding/outcrossing

used extensively in meat producing species

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83

animals used in crossbreeding

beed, swine, broilers, meat breeds of sheep and goats, dogs, cats

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why crossbreeding

often beneficial, enchances reproduction and favorable (or not detrimental) influence on other traits

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85

undesirable crossbreeding effects of crossing species

can't reproduce

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86

chimera

mixture of incommpatible chromosomes or chromosome numbers

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87

selection

determining the parents of the next generation

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88

selection techniques

  • natural mating

  • artificial insemination

  • embryo transfer

  • embryo splitting

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89

superovulate female

hormone treatment that alters the number of follicles developming

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90

cloning

creating a new embryo from an existing cell of an organism

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91

grazing

prefer grasses, legumes, weeds (sheep)

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92

browsing

concentrate selective, wide variety of forages (goats)

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93

seasonal reproduction (short day breeder)

  • estrous cycles - 17 days

  • only have estrous cycles when there is a decrease in light and increase in dark

  • estrus - 30 hours

  • seasonal anestrous

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94

sheep and goats were

among the earliest domesticated animals

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95

goat coat

hair

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96

sheep coat

wool (some hair breeds)

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97

goat tail

up

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98

sheep tail

down (often docked)

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99

goat horn

narrow, curving

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100

sheep horn

broad, curling (if present)

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