APUSH: VOCAB UNIT 7: 11th

studied byStudied by 5 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

Progressives

1 / 139

encourage image

There's no tags or description

Looks like no one added any tags here yet for you.

140 Terms

1

Progressives

political party that dominated the first 2 decades of 20th century politics; urban, middle class reformers who wanted to increase the role of gov in reform while maintaining capitalist economy; different from Populists who were mainly farmers; ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL; northern + middle class; didn’t intensify regional and class differences like Populists

New cards
2

muckrakers

writers given nickname by Teddy Roosevelt bc they revealed widespread corruption in urban management; concerned Lincoln Steffens, Ida Tarbell, Upton Sinclair

New cards
3

Lincoln Steffens

wrote The Shame of the Cities about corrupt URBAN MANAGEMENT company; raised moral stakes with Progressives along with Ida Tarbell and Upton Sinclair

New cards
4

Ida Tarbell

wrote History of Standard Oil about corrupt OIL company; raised moral stakes with Progressives along with Lincoln Steffens and Upton Sinclair

New cards
5

Upton Sinclair

wrote The Jungle, about corrupt MEATPACKING industry; raised moral stakes with Progressives along with Ida Tarbell and Lincoln Steffens; WROTE SERIES OF EXPOSE ARTICLES WITH LED TO MEAT INSPECTION ACT AND FDA; says state should confiscate materials abandoned and give to poor (EPIC); almost gets elected in California

New cards
6

W. E. B. Du Bois

First African American to earn PHD from Harvard; PHD in psychology; Spokesman for African Americans Open disagreement with Booker T Washington bc Washington said need to prove self; DuBois said rights are ours and we need to DEMAND RIGHTS now: no proving; Found NAACP; eventually moved to AFRICA

New cards
7

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)

group that fought for African American Rights; leader was WEB DuBois

New cards
8

Margaret Sanger

early feminist that faced wide opposition for promoting the use of contraceptives (which were illegal in most places);

New cards
9

19th Amendment

gave women right to vote

New cards
10

Robert La Follette

wisconsin governor that led the way for many progressive leaders; got Wisconsin to implement plans for direct primary elections, progressive taxation, and rail regulation

New cards
11

Ballot initiative

allowed voters to propose new laws

New cards
12

referendum

allowed the public to vote on new laws

New cards
13

Recall election

gave voters the power to remove officials from office before their terms expired

New cards
14

Theodore Roosevelt

most prominent progressive leader; loved CONSERVATION; chosen to be McKinley’s running mate bc Republicans thought McKinley might be too powerful; succeeded McKinley when he was assassinated; TRUSTBUSTER with SHERMAN ANTITRUST ACT; influenced by Sinclair The Jungle and regulated with MEAT INSPECTION ACT; BELIEVED IN GOOD AND BAD TRUSTS

New cards
15

William Howard Taft

won election of 1908; spearheaded drive for 16th and 17th amendments; even MORE TRUST BUSTING THAN TEDDY; Roosevelt initially backed him then didn’t like some of his actions; Roosevelt ran against him in 1912 and split the Rep vote

New cards
16

16th amendment

instituted national amendment tax

New cards
17

17th amendment

allowed for direct election of senators

New cards
18

“Dollar diplomacy”

attempt to secure favorable relationships with Latin American and East Asian countries by giving monetary loans

New cards
19

Woodrow Wilson

Democrat who tried to distinguish himself from Teddy on the Bull Moose Ticket; 3RD PROGRESSIVE PRESIDENT; RACIST and supported KKK, took our clause against racism in League of Nations

New cards
20

New Nationalism

name for Roosevelt’s policies like new deals

New cards
21

New Freedom

name for Wilson’s ideas and policies; Wilson argued that gov should interfere to protect man’s freedom NO GOOD MONOPOLIES

New cards
22

Federal Trade Commission

lobbied for and enforces the Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914 and helped create the Federal Reserve System

New cards
23

Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914

banned the practices of price discrimination and anti-competitive mergers, the new law also declared strikes, boycotts, and labor unions legal under federal law

New cards
24

Federal Reserve System

gave gov greater control over the nation’s finances; the central bank of the United States and is charged with the responsibility of developing and administering monetary and credit policies for the nation

New cards
25

Spanish Flu

devastating disease; outbreak in 1918; happened around WW1

New cards
26

Red Scare

heightened by the Russian Revolution, this further split the Progressive coalition -> divided leftists and moderates; the promotion of a WIDESPREAD FEAR of a potential rise of communism, anarchism or other leftist ideologies by a society or state

New cards
27

Panama

Congress approved a plan for this canal; at the time this place was a province of Columbia; US supported a revolt here and got good deal to use the canal out of this support

New cards
28

Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe Doctrine

aka Big Stick Policy; US became fixed presence in Panama bc they claimed that Latin American domestic instability constituted a threat to American Security; America took role of international police and intervened anywhere in the Western Hemisphere where it thought national security was at stake

New cards
29

WW1

central powers (Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire + Austria-Hungary, Germany) vs. allies (Russia, France, Belgium and Great Britain, but they were later joined by Japan, Romania, China and the United States); caused by assassination of Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand

New cards
30

neutrality

Wilson’s WW1 policy that all belligerents would be treated fairly and without favoritism

New cards
31

blockade

the practice of not allowing ships to enter or leave a port; England imposed this effectively on shipments headed to Germany; especially those from the US; England then paid for the cargo to keep US happy

New cards
32

Submarines (U-boats)

Germany’s attempt to counter England’s blockade on shipments to Germany from US; didn’t strictly adhere to letter of international law that said germany had to declare they were attacking a civilian ship; eliminated stealth

New cards
33

Lusitania

1915 Germany sank this passenger ship; provoked the condemnation of both the gov and much of the public; this boat was carrying british ammunition but the main bad publicity was focused on the 1000+ lives lost

New cards
34

Zimmermann telegram

British intercepted this telegram from German Foreign Minister to German ambassador in Mexico; outlined German plan to keep the US out of the European War; stated that IF mexico declared war on the US, Germany would help Mexico in regaining the lands lost in Mexican War; also said they’d help Japan; LED US TO ENTER WW1

New cards
35

War Industry Board (WIB)

created to coordinate all facets of industrial and agricultural production, sought to guarantee that not only the US but also the rest of the allies would be well supplied; MIXED SUCCESS BC SLOW AND INEFFICIENT

New cards
36

Espionage Act 1917

prohibited anyone from using the US mail system to interfere with the war effort or with the draft instituted under the Selective Service Act of 1917

New cards
37

Sedition Act 1918

Stripped dissenters and protesters of their rights to publicly resist the war; critics

New cards
38

Selective Service Act 1917

law that provided for the registration of all American men between the ages of 21 and 30 for a military draft; by end of WWI, 24.2 million had registered

New cards
39

Russian Revolution

Bolsheviks took control of Russia; this made already heightened PARANOIA WORSE -> Americans feared communist takeover -> creation of FBI

New cards
40

Federal Bureau of Investigation

new gov agency created to prevent radicals from taking over; run by J. Edgar Hoover

New cards
41

Palmer Raids

in early 1920 the gov abandoned all pretect of respecting civil liberties as its agents; raided union halls, pool halls, social clubs, and residences; 10,000+ arrested in 30 cities, but very few weapons or bombs found; started bc a bomb exploded on Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer’s home and he was concerned bc of Russian Revolution

New cards
42

Committee on Public Information (CPI)

gov organization that contributed to Red Scare frenzy; as war progressed messages became more sensational with images of Germans as coldblooded and baby killing, power hungry Huns; PROPAGANDA

New cards
43

Great Migration

when Black people realized that wartime manufacturing was creating jobs in the North, they went to big cities like New York, Chicago, St. Louis, and Detroit

New cards
44

Fourteen Points

Wilson’s idea; dealt with territorial issues and offered ideas that would build long term peace after WW1; Germany resisted and Allies were dismissive; Wilson really wanted the League of Nations but US didn’t join

New cards
45

Treaty of Versailles

treaty that ended WW1; European Allies wanted this; Germany was forced to cede colonial and German lands; German had to pay reparations and admit fault; helped set stage for WW2 bc humiliated Germany and left in economic ruin; CREATED LEAGUE OF NATIONS

New cards
46

Separation of powers (checks and balances)

separated the powers of government into three separate branches to limit arbitrary excesses by the governments so they can keep each other in CHECK

New cards
47

Henry Cabot Lodge

leader of Reservationists republicans; Wilson’s political and intellectual rival; influenced Senate and got them to refuse to ratify the Treaty of Versailles -> thought it would rob the US of sovereignty; Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee

New cards
48

pro-business

gov agencies, like the Federal Trade Commission, had this attitude; helped businesses more than regulating them

New cards
49

three Jazz Age presidents

Warren Harding, Calvin Coolidge, Herbert Hoover; pursued pro-business policies and surrounded themselves with like-minded advisors Teapot Dome Scandal

New cards
50

Warren Harding

pro business jazz age president; (some of Harding’s went to prison); TEA POT DOME SCANDAL; conservative on economic issues; more liberal than wilson on civil liberty issues; supported antilynching laws and HELPED FARMERS

New cards
51

Calvin Coolidge

pro-business jazz age president; took over when Harding died,continued Harding’s conservative economic policies; pushed for LOWER INCOME TAXES

New cards
52

Herbert Hoover

pro-business jazz age president; republican who ran on a campaign of prohibition and prosperity; early years of his presidency -> prosperity for the US; many blamed him for the stock market crash

New cards
53

Welfare capitalism

when businessmen hoped that if they offered benefits like pension plans, profit sharing, and company parties then they could dissuade workers from organizing and demanding more

New cards
54

automobile

consumer product that best exemplified the spirit of the nation during the early 20th century -> suburbs; allowed workers to live farther away from city centers

New cards
55

suburbs

the development of these was enabled by automobiles; living center farther away from cities

New cards
56

radio

followed automobiles in changing the nation’s culture; used by American free enterprise for ADVERTISING COMMERCIALS

New cards
57

Advertising industry

this industry grew up during the decade to hype all theses new products; advertisements were EFFECTIVE and made people buy unnecessary things

New cards
58

flapper

a young woman in the 1920s who wore her hair bobbed, wore makeup, dressed in flashy, skimpy clothes, and lived a life of independence and freedom

New cards
59

Movies

this entertainment reflected back at the nation its identical self-image; had young gorgeous heros and heroines that defied all odds and made it seem possible to become rich

New cards
60

F. Scott Fitzgerald, Ernest Hemingway, and Eugene O’Neill

world class authors that helped American literature gain world-class authors; IRONICALLY MOVED TO EUROPE -> lost generation

New cards
61

Lost generation

a group of writers who were disillusioned with 1920s American society; Sinclair Lewis and F. Scott Fitzgerald; LEWIS in his novels Babbitt and Main Street, he criticized the materialism, consumerism, and conformity of Roaring Twenties; FITZGERALD: GREAT GATSBY

New cards
62

Harlem Renaissance

a cultural explosion of African Americans music, art and literature in the early 20th century, roughly from the 1910's through the mid-1930's; centered in NYC in Harlem

New cards
63

Langston Hughes, Countee Cullen, Zora Neale Hurston

great POETS of the HARLEM Renaissance

New cards
64

Jazz Age

term used to describe the image of the liberated, urbanized 1920s, with a flapper as the dominant symbol of that era; aka “Roaring Twenties”

New cards
65

Louis Armstrong

most popular and gifted of the Jazz Age musician; trumpeter

New cards
66

Sacco and Vanzetti

two Italian immigrant anarchists who were arrested on charges of murder; murder was a cause of celebration for the political left and proof against them was inconclusive

New cards
67

Emergency Quota Act

set immigration quotas based on national origins and discriminated against the “new immigrants” who came from S and E Europe; set to reduce “foreign influence” on country

New cards
68

John Thomas Scopes

broke law that forbade teachers from teaching evolution

New cards
69

Scopes Monkey Trial

John Thomas Scopes’ trial which was over the issue of teaching evolution; drew national attention due in part to attorneys being DARROW AND BRYAN

New cards
70

Clarence Darrow and William Jennings Bryan

lawyers of the Scopes Monkey Trial

New cards
71

Prohibition

banned the manufacture, sale, and transport of alcoholic beverages

New cards
72

18th Amendment

illegal to manufacture, sell, import, export alcohol for beverage movements; Only amend

New cards
73

ment to ever be repealed

New cards
74

Gangster era

open warfare between competing gangs, criminals, and law enforcement earned this period this title; 1920s ish

New cards
75

Hoovervilles

Shanty towns that the unemployed built in the cities during the early years of the Depression; shows that people blamed Hoover directly for the Depression

New cards
76

Dust bowl

term given to the Great Plain where a severe drought hit, killing all of the crops of the region; killed people

New cards
77

Farmers’ Holiday Association

group of farmers that took break from selling goods in attempt to make prices go up; organized demonstrations and threatened a nation wide walkout by farmers

New cards
78

Hawley-Smoot Tariff

Hoover raised this PROTECTIVE TARIFF to be the highest in America, tried to protect America but it backfired because other countries retaliated with tariffs; SALES WENT DOWN -> WORST ECONOMIC DEPRESSIONS, had to created Federal Emergency Relief Administration after this

New cards
79

Bonus Expeditionary Force (BEF)

veterans that came to Washington to lobby for the money they were owed (get it sooner), refused to leave when denied, Hoover ordered the army to expel them (with excessive force); thousands injured from TEAR GAS ATTACK

New cards
80

Franklin D Roosevelt

Democrat, nominated bc familiar last name; the 32nd president of the United States, sought to fight the worst parts of the Great Depression through his legislative agenda, nicknamed the New Deal

New cards
81

Eleanor Roosevelt

redefined what a 1st lady is; became FDR’s eyes, ears and legs to support Franklin’s disability issues; shared lemonade with Bonus Army and listened; stayed with FDR even after affair; AMBASSADOR TO UNITED NATIONS representing children

New cards
82

New Deal

attempted to end the Great Depression by using government power to provide relief to the poor, stimulate recovery, and reform the American economy

New cards
83

First New Deal

most of these programs were implemented during the first 100 days; included Bank Holiday, Home Owner’s Act, NIRA (NRA + 7a + PWA), AAA, CWA, CCC, TVA, Glass Stefal (FDIC), SEC, REA, FERA

New cards
84

Second New Deal

2nd AAA, WPA, Social Security, Wagner Act

New cards
85

Emergency Banking Relief Bill (Bank Holiday)

put poorly managed banks under the control of the Treasury Department and granted gov licenses to those that were ok; ROOSEVELT wanted to ESTABLISH TRUST IN BANKS

New cards
86

Fireside chats

FDR weekly chats where he spoke directly to the public, saying what he planned to do

New cards
87

Glass-Steagall Act (Banking Act of 1933)

created the FDIC; designed to provide safer and more effective use of assets of banks

New cards
88

Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)

gov agency created to guarantee bank deposits, which was a big deal bc people used to lose all money in their accounts if a bank when bankrupt

New cards
89

Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)

Pay farmers to cut production, had to create processing tax on meat packers, millers, and other food processors (canners) to pay for it; had unintended consequences

New cards
90

Alphabet agencies

Roosevelt’s new government agencies that were referred to by their acronyms

New cards
91

Farm Credit Act

provided loans to those farmers in danger of foreclosure

New cards
92

National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA)

consolidated businesses and coordinated their activities with the aim of eliminating overproduction; STABILIZE PRICES; established PWA

New cards
93

Public Works Administration (PWA)

set aside $3 billion to create jobs building roads, sewers, public housing units, and other civic necessities; established by NIRA

New cards
94

Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)

provided grants to the states to manage their own PWA- like projects; young unmarried men lived like militar;y; keep young men out of trouble; lots of conservation projects; SEGREGATED BUT GAVE OPPORTUNITIES TO BLACK PEOPLE

New cards
95

Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)

under gov control, this agency (which provided energy to the Tennessee Valley Region) expanded its operation greatly and led to economic recovery of the region

New cards
96

National Labor Relations Board (NLRB)

mediated labor disputes; independent agency of the US gov charged with conducting elections for labor union representation; est. NIRA

New cards
97

Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)

regulated the stock market; wasn’t implemented until 1934

New cards
98

John Maynard Keyes

British economist who argued that for a nation to recovery fully from a depression, the government had to spend money to encourage investment and consumption; said that depression are result of vicious cycle of mistrust in money and economy

New cards
99

Deficit spending

practice where a government spends more money that it receives as revenue; usually refers to the CONSCIOUS EFFORT TO STIMULATE ECONOMIC GROWTH by lowering taxes or increasing government expenditures

New cards
100

Multiplier effect

effect in economics in which an increase in spending produces an increase in national income and consumption greater than the initial amount spent

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 14 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 96 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 28 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 51 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 17 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard45 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard240 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard68 terms
studied byStudied by 471 people
Updated ... ago
4.9 Stars(7)
flashcards Flashcard74 terms
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard44 terms
studied byStudied by 20 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard40 terms
studied byStudied by 44 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard34 terms
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard20 terms
studied byStudied by 659 people
Updated ... ago
4.6 Stars(15)