chapter 18 - specialized sensory receptors - taste smell vision

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1
  • sensory system

what is responsible for providing the brain with vital information regarding both the external and internal environment?

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  • general senses and special senses

what are the two divisions of the sensory system?

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general senses

  • a division of the sensory system

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  • includes touch, pressure, vibration, stretch, pain, and temperature

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special senses

  • a division of the sensory system

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  • includes vision, hearing, equilibrium, taste, and smell

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sensory receptors

  • responsible for monitoring the body's internal and external environment

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stimulus

  • a change in the environment that activates a sensory receptor

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sensory neuron

  • electrical signal (nerve impulse) that conveys the information to the spinal cord or brain where it is integrated and interpreted, and appropriate responses are initiated

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  • because they convert one type of energy (for example, light energy or thermal energy) and transduce it (changes it) into an electrical impulse (receptor potential or an action potential by a neuron)

why are sensory receptors often referred to as transducers?

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chemoreceptors

  • sensory receptors that detect the presence of specific chemicals

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mechanoreceptors

  • sensory receptors that are stimulated by changes in their shape which allows them to respond to touch, pressure, vibration, and stretch

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thermoreceptors

  • sensory receptors that detect changes in temperature

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nociceptors

  • sensory receptors that detect pain (they are stimulated by conditions that potentially harm the body)

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special sense organs

  • complex structures located on the head with a high concentration of sensory receptors designed to detect environmental conditions associated with these senses

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filiform papilla

  • smaller tufted papilla

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  • found over entire surface of the tongue

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  • no taste receptors but do have touch receptors

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  • tufted shape produces friction to help tongue push food

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fungiform papilla

  • smaller, mushroom shaped

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  • scattered over entire surface of tongue

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  • surrounded by a shallower depression

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  • most contain taste buds

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circumvallate papilla

  • large and blunt top like a pencil eraser

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  • in a row forming a V shape along posterior edge of tongue

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  • surrounded by a deep depression where dissolved molecules collect

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  • all have taste buds

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taste buds

  • chemoreceptors for taste

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  • embedded in wall of papilla facing depression

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  • four primary tastes: sweet, salt, sour, and bitter

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  • somewhat associated with specific regions of tongue

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gustation

  • sense of taste

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umami

  • additional taste sensation describe as the pleasant taste of savory foods, especially meat (savoriness)

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  • insula

what lobe of the brain perceives taste?

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  • slow adapting receptors

  • are taste receptors slow or fast adapting?

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gustatory pathway

...

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olfactory tract

  • neurons synapse with olfactory receptor neurons then carry sensory information to the brain

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olfactory bulb

  • above ethmoid bone within CNS

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  • location of synapses between sensory receptor neurons and olfactory tract neurons

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olfactory nerve

  • bundles of axons from olfactory receptor cells

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  • form CN 1

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olfactory glands

  • secrete mucus layer covering dendrites

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olfactory receptor cells

  • bipolar neurons located in the nasal epithelium

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  • chemoreceptor (which detect odor molecules dissolved in the mucus)

the sense of smell has what type of sensory receptor?

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olfactory cilia

  • projections extending out into mucus layer

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  • site of binding with dissolved molecules

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olfactory epithelium

  • area of nasal epithelium approximately the size of a postage stamp

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  • houses olfactory receptor neurons

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olfaction

  • sense of smell

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  • amygdala

what part of the limbic system in the brain is closely associated with the sense of smell?

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  • the olfactory cortex in the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain

where does the olfactory nerves convey the sensory information from the olfactory bulbs to?

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lacrimal gland

  • produced tears

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lacrimal puncta

  • two small openings in medial corner of eye

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  • tears collecting in the medial corner drain through it to enter the lacrimal canaliculi

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lacrimal canaliculi

  • two small canals

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  • receive tears from puncta and deliver them to lacrimal sac

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lacrimal sac

  • collects tears draining away from eye in lacrimal canaliculi

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  • empties into nasolacrimal duct

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nasolacrimal duct

  • receives tears from lacrimal sac

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  • tears drain into inferior meatus of nasal cavity

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tear duct

  • ducts from lacrimal gland

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  • carry tears to be released behind upper eyelid

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  • tears then flow across anterior eye from superior lateral corner to medial corner

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eyes

  • responsible for sense of vision

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photoreceptors

  • sensory receptors in the eyes (rods and cones)

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  • activated by light energy

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  • located in the retina

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rods

  • photoreceptor that is active in dim light

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  • perceives in shades of gray (no color) and images are not sharp (blurred)

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cones

  • photoreceptor that is active only in bright light

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  • perceives colors (red, green, and blue) and produces sharper images

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connecting neurons

  • several layers of neurons that connect photoreceptor cells to the optic nerve

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  • true

true or false? humans have binocular and stereoscopic vision and are capable of depth perception and distinguishing colors

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  • about 1/6th

how much of the eyeball is exposed?

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tunic

  • term meaning coat or covering

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  • the fibrous tunic, vascular tunic, and neural tunic

what are the three layers or tunics that makeup the wall of the eyeball?

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fibrous tunic

  • outer layer of the eye

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  • composed of the sclera and cornea

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vascular tunic

  • middle layer of the eye

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  • composed of the choroid, ciliary body, and iris

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neural tunic

  • innermost layer of the eye

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  • composed of the ora serrata and retina

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eyebrow

  • also called supercilia

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  • prevents sweat from flowing down face and into eye

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upper and lower eyelid

  • also called palpebra

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  • blinking spreads tears across conjunctiva and helps to remove fine particles like dust

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  • narrowing or shutting tightly protects eyeball from strong light and external environment

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palpebral conjunctiva

  • thin, transparent mucous membrane

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  • lines inner surface of each eyelid

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  • continues with bulbar conjunctiva to prevent dirt and dust particles from reaching eyeball

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eyelashes

  • these are short hairs, but may be also called cilia

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  • found along edges of both eyelids

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  • help to prevent debris from reaching the eyeball

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bulbar conjunctiva

  • thin, transparent mucous membrane

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  • covers and protects the anterior surface of eyeball

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  • continues with palpebral conjunctiva

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accessory structures

  • they function to protect the eyeball, but play no role in vision

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tarsal or meibomian glands

  • oil glands or sebaceous glands that secrete an oily substance that keeps eyelids from sticking to each other

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  • embedded at the base of eye lashes

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