chemistry exam ch 1-3

studied byStudied by 22 people
5.0(1)
get a hint
hint

what are the properties of matter determined by?

1 / 111

Tags and Description

Chemistry

112 Terms

1

what are the properties of matter determined by?

chemical and physical properties of atoms and molecules

New cards
2

atom

submicroscopic particles matter which are building blocks for elements and molecules

New cards
3

molecule

2 or more atoms combine to make them. it can be made of the same element or different elements

New cards
4

chemistry

the science that seeks to understand the behavior of matter by studying the behavior of atoms and molecules (the study of matter)

New cards
5

strong bonds

make an object harder to break

New cards
6

what does it mean that science is empirical ?

it is based on obsesrvations and experiments

New cards
7

scientific law

A general hypothesis or statement about the relationship of natural quantities that has been tested over and over again and has not been contradicted

New cards
8

fact

A phenomenon about which competent observers can agree.

New cards
9

hypothesis

prediction

New cards
10

principle of falsifiability

for a hypothesis to be considered scientific, it must be testable and capable of being wrong

New cards
11

does data prove a hypothesis

no, it only supports a hypothesis

New cards
12

theory

unifying explaination of a scientific phenomena

New cards
13

matter

anything that has mass and takes up space, consisting of atoms and molecules in motion

New cards
14

the 3 states of matter

solid, liquid, gas

New cards
15

to measure the volume of a solid, use…

water displacement

New cards
16

structure of a solid

fixed volume and shape (tightly packed bonds

New cards
17

structure of a liquid

no shape but fixed volume (loose bonds)

New cards
18

structure of a gas

no shape or volume (very very weak bonds)

New cards
19

2 categories of matter

pure substances and mixtures

New cards
20

2 types of misxtures

heterogenous (layered boundaries like wet sand) and homogenous (no clear separation of the compounds)

New cards
21

element

substance that can not be broken down into a simpler substance

New cards
22

compound

substance of 2 or more elements in fixed definite proportions

New cards
23

homogenous mixture

composition is the same throughout (ex: air, bronze, sweet tea)

New cards
24

heterogeneous mixture

varries in composition throughout sample (ex: granite countertop)

New cards
25

methods of separating mixtures

decanting, distillation, and filtration

New cards
26

physical changes

a substance doesnt change into a new substance (phase change, ex: ice to water to steam)

New cards
27

physical properties (list)

density, color intensity, particle size, melting/freezing point, boinling point, texture

New cards
28

chemical change

a reaction forms a new substance

New cards
29

base unit of length

meter

New cards
30

base unit of mass

gram

New cards
31

base unit of time

second

New cards
32

amount of a substance

mole

New cards
33

base unit of electric current

ampere

New cards
34

base unit of luminous intensity

candela

New cards
35

precision

agreement and closeness of repeatable values. you can be precise but not accurate in measurements.

New cards
36

accuracy

agreement and consensus of measured values to the actual value

New cards
37

uncertainty/confidence factor

degree of measure value differs

New cards
38

atom

smallest identifiable unit of an element

New cards
39

Gerd Binning and Heinrich Roher

discovered “tunneling” current that allowed them to scan the surface on an atomic scale

New cards
40

what did Binnig and Roher’s discovery lead to?

electron scanning tunneling microscopy

New cards
41

law of conservation of mass

in a chemical reaction matter is neither created or destroyed

New cards
42

law of definite proportions

for a given compound the elements always combine in the same proportion

New cards
43

Law of multiple proportions

2 elements A and B can form different compounds by combining in different proportions and the ratio of these two is itself a small whole numebr

New cards
44

dalton’s atomic theory

-each element is composed of tiny indestructible particles called atoms

-all atoms of a given element have the same mass and other properties that distinguish them from the atoms of other elements

-atoms combine in simple whole number ratios to form compounds

-atoms of one element cannot change into atoms of another element. in chemical reaction atoms change the way that they are bound together with other atoms to form a new substance.

New cards
45

jj Thomson

did cathode ray experiment

New cards
46

RA millikan

did oil drop experiment showing that the particle had the same amount of charge as the hydrogen ion as thomson observed in his experiments

New cards
47

electron

negatively charged particle

New cards
48

neutrons

neutral particles

New cards
49

proton

positively charged particles

New cards
50

what is an atomic number?

number of protons

New cards
51

isotope

the same elements but with different mass due to varying number of neutrons.

New cards
52

ion

atoms or groups of atoms with a positive or negative charge

New cards
53

cation

when an atom loses an electron (positive charged ion)

New cards
54

anion

when an atom gains an electron (negative charged ion)

New cards
55

demitri Mendeleev

developed the modern periodic table

New cards
56

periodic law (2 points)

-when elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic mass, certain sets of properties recur periodically.

-elements having similar physical and chemical properties fall within a column

New cards
57

how are the elements arranged (left to right)?

in increasing atomic number.

New cards
58

what are rows of the periodic table called?

periods

New cards
59

what are the columns of the periodic table called?

families

New cards
60

areas of the periodic table

main group metals

transition metals

inner transition metals-(lanthanides and actinides)

metalloids

nonmetals

New cards
61

properties of metals

solid at room temp (except mercury)

reflective

conduct heat/electric current

malleable and ductile

lose electrons and form cations

New cards
62

metaloids

can exhibit properties of both metals and nonmetals

known as semiconductors (poor conductors of heat)

solid at room temperature

New cards
63

nonmetals

can be found in all three states of matter

poor conductors of heat or electricity

solids are brittle

gain electrons to become anions

except for H mostly found in the upper right on the periodic table

New cards
64

elements within a family have…

-similar chemical and physical properties

-the same number of electrons

New cards
65

what do metals tend to form?

cations

New cards
66

what do nonmetals tend to form?

anions

New cards
67

what do metaloids form?

tend to form cations but can also form anions

New cards
68

mole

quantity used in chemistry

New cards
69

charge of Zinc

2+

New cards
70

silver charge

1+

New cards
71

what is the charge of aluminum?

3+

New cards
72

compound

made of atoms held together by chemical bonds

New cards
73

bond

attraction force between atoms

New cards
74

ionic bonds

formed between a metal and a nonmetal where an electron transfers from one atom to another. the resulting cation and anion are attracted to each other by electrostatic forces. they are the strongest type of bond. ionically bonded elements are known as ionic compounds

New cards
75

covalent bonds

occur between nonmetal elements. this bond arises from the mutual attraction of 2 nuclei for the same electron (sharing) refered to as molecular compounds. balance between attractive and repulsive forces

New cards
76

chemical formula

represents the composition of the substance

New cards
77

molecular formula

lists the exact number and types of atoms of which the molecule is composed.

New cards
78

empirical formula

relative type and number of atoms in the compound (simplest ratio)

New cards
79

Atomic elements

they exist by themselves, all metals are atomic

New cards
80

molecular element

doesn’t exist by itself

New cards
81

what net charges does a ionic compound have

zero

New cards
82

naming ionic compounds (including alkali and alkaline earth metals)

metal followed by the nonmetal

nonmetal ending exchanged with “-ide”

New cards
83

type 2 metal and nonmetal ionic

metal then nonmetal

metal’s oxidation state is indicated by roman numerals between the two

New cards
84

hydrates

ionic compounds containing a specific number of waters for each formmula unit

New cards
85

name molecular compounds

name first nonmetal

change ending of second nonmetal to “-ide”

use prefixes on both unless the first one is one (no subscript

New cards
86

acids

release Hydrogen (H+) when disolved in water

sour taste and low pH value (less than 7)

can dissolve many metals

New cards
87

binary acids

have only 2 elements, H+ and a nonmetal

New cards
88

how to name oxyacids

h cation and polyatomicc anion that contain atoms

take bace of nonmetal and add “-ic acid”

New cards
89

is there a difference between atomic weight and atomic mass?

no. it is the mass of one mole of the element

New cards
90

combustion analysis

burning of a known mass of compound and weighing the product. generally used for organic compounds containing C, H, and O and can determine the original amount of constituent elements.

New cards
91

organic compound

mainly made of C, H, sometimes O, N, P and S with traces of other elements (main focus is carbon) bond almost exclusively covalently. when carbon bonds they form straight/branched chains or rings

New cards
92

charge of Sc

3+

New cards
93

phosphate

PO4 charge=3-

New cards
94

Acetate

C2H3O2 charge -1

New cards
95

hydroxide

OH charge -1

New cards
96

carbonate

CO3 charge -2

New cards
97

ammonium

NH4 charge 1+

New cards
98

sulfate

SO4 charge 2-

New cards
99

chromium type 2 metal

Cr 2+ or 3+

New cards
100

Iron type 2 metal

Fe 2+ or 3+

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 12 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 12 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 63 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 22 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 12 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 37 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 101 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(4)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard212 terms
studied byStudied by 12 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard43 terms
studied byStudied by 12 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard50 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard65 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard20 terms
studied byStudied by 23 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard44 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard30 terms
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard26 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)