Unit 9 Key Terms

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The Cold War

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1

The Cold War

1945-1991

Ongoing hostility between the USSR vs West (US, GB, etc) that never developed into direct warfare

  • battle of ideologies vs armies

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Causes of Cold war

  • US needed to disband communism and wants utopian democratic society

  • Stalin wanted to spread communism

    • wants a buffer state between USSR + Germany

    • Feb 1946: Stalin gives belligerent speech

    • never holds free elections in communist states

  • Long telegram

  • March 1946: Churchill gives Iron Curtain speech

  • E Berlin turns Communist; Stalin wants to keep them weak

    • US/west disagree; Stable Germany = stable central Europe

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Long telegram

George Kennam

only way to deal with USSR was to be tough and forceful

  • saw stalin’s belligerent speech; extremely alarmed

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US containment policy

  1. ideological/policy component

    1. truman doctrine

  2. economic component

    1. marshall plan

  3. military component

    1. NATO

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Truman Doctrine - Context

1947

Turkey and Greece are undergoing political crisis - non-communists vs communists

  • US and USSR support each side respectively

  • GB too bankrupt to support

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Truman Doctrine

March 2nd, 1947

US must help non-communist countries who are threatened by communism

  • congress agrees; $ is supplied to Greece and Turkey

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Atomic diplomacy

USSR wants international control of atomic weapons but US opposes

  • US want nuclear monopoly

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Baruch Plan

All fissionable material would be put under international control IF the US agreed to share their “secrets” (scientific, technological, etc)

  • REJECTED

    • Results in nuclear arms race

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Stalin’s belligerent speech

Feb 1946

  • warns about dangers of communism

  • Inevitable conflict between communism and capitalism

  • communism must/will prevail over capitalism

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Churchill’s Iron curtain speech

March 1946

  • Iron wall between E and W Europe

  • W doesn’t know whats going on in communist E

  • calls for unity between GB and US

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Mr. X article

July 1947 - Kennan

If we can keep communism contained and stop its spread, it’ll eventually fall apart on its own

  • becomes basis for US containment policy

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Marshall Plan

1948-1951: $12.4 billion aid

US provides $ to help Euro countries rebuild and avoid communist influences on them

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Berlin Blockade

1948

Stalin blockades Berlin; wants to drive W out by cutting off supplies

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Berlin Airlift

1948

W powers fly supplies into Berlin

  • no way to stop the planes

  • Stalin eventually backs down

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North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

Permanent military alliances with most W Euro countries, canada, US to stop the spread of communism

  • caused by Berlin Blockade and Berlin Airlift

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Warsaw Pact

1955

Alliance between E Euro Soviet countries and USSR against NATO/capitalism

  • response to NATO

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Christian democrats - characteristics

  • dominated by Progressive Catholics

  • faith in capitalism and representative democracy

  • combine social reforms and political change

    • economic miracle - US Marshall plan

  • Common Christian and democratic heritage

  • reject authoritarianism and nationalism

  • LIBERAL

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Christian Democrats - people

  • Italy - Alcide de Gaspevi

  • France - Robert Schumann

  • W Germany - Konrad Adenawer

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Economic Miracle - US Marshall Plan

  • aid jump-starts economic recovery

  • W Euro governments make economic growth #1 priority

  • Willingness of people to sacrifice and work hard; short term pain and long term gain

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Ludwig Erhard

W Germany Finance minister

wants free-market capitalism but kept social welfare systems

  • removed emergency measures from post-war period

  • successful by 1950s because of support and co-operative population

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Sean Monnet

France Finance minister

mixed system with some elements of socialist democrats

  • nationalization of the banks and some industries while ALSO encouraging private business

  • successful

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Moves towards Euro unity

  1. Schumann Plan

  2. Treaty of Rome

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Schumann Plan

1950 - Schumann and Monet

create one large W Euro market for coal and steel industry with France, W Germany, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands, and Luxembourg

  • results in Euro coal and steel community - make these 6 countries so economically intertwined they can’t wage war

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Treaty of Rome

1957

Forms European Economic Community/Euro Common Market with Fr, Belgium, Neth, W Germ, Lux, and Italy

  1. Gradual elimination of tariffs between members

  2. free movement of capital and labor between members

  3. commence economic policies to est. common econ. institutions

    1. each region can specialize their economy

forerunner to the EU

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Charles de Gauelle - French nationalism

  • 1958: head of 5th Republic

  • wants to restore Fr greatness and glory; sees US as main threat to true Fr and Euro independence

  • 1962: pulls Fr out of NATO and pursues own atomic weapons

  • vetoes “pro-US” GB membership into common market TWICE

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Decolonization of Euro Empires

  • 1947-1962: almost all possessions are independent

  • reflects decline of Euro power post-WW2 but infl of W ideals remains strong in Asian and Africa

    • westernization continues

Post 1945 Europeans go 2 different directions

  1. willing to let empires go and focus on rebuilding home

  2. Neo-colonialism

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Decolonization - Nationalism

  • Post-ww1 demands abt nationalsim, self-determination, and racial equality spread to all classes

  • economic hardship of GB, Fr and drafts makes colonies angry

    • nationalist leaders increase their demands

  • Rus rev encourages nationalism and USSR supports nationalist movements

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neo-colonialism

increased economic dominance of Euro countries over colonies AND destabilizing political independence movements

  • unsuccessful in the long run

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Indian independence

  • nationalism channeled towards W parliamentary system

  • Ghandi: preaches about non-violent opposition

  • initially GB granted limited reforms and autonomy

    • Post ww1 - declines

  • 1947: indian independence gained

    • indian - largely Hindu

    • Palestine - muslim

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china independence

  • Mao Ze Dong: leninist model for china’s independence

    • most asian countries will either use Indian or Chinese model

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Independence movements - timeline

  • 1946: US grants Philippines independence

  • 1947: Indian and Palestinian independence

  • 1948: GB grants Sri Lanka and Burma independence

  • 1949: Indonesia gains independence

  • 1948: Israel is created

    • Israel - jewish state

    • Jordan - arab state

  • 1955: Vietnam split into N (Communist) and S (non-communist)

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France and Indo-China

  • Indo-china: laos, vietnam, cambodia

  • Fr try to re-establish control of Indo-China

  • 1954: Vietnamese victory against Fr

    • Fr relinquish control of vietnam

  • international agreement that divides vietnam into N (communist) and S (non-communist)

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Israel conflict

  • 1948: israel is created as a jewish nationalist state

    • Israel - Jews

    • Jordan - Arabs

  • Aranbs unite in opposistion to Israel

    • attack Israel but lose

    • begins continuious Arab-Israeli conflict

  • 1948: egytian defeat against israel

  • 1952: Natioanlist revolution with Gen. Nasser

    • 1956: Gen. Nasser: nationalized sious canal

  • 1952: Second Arab-Israeli war

    • caused by GB, Fr, and Israel invading Egypt

    • US and Soviets interevene and conflict stops

  • 1961: Belgians grant the Congo independence

    • no time for a stable government to emerge so instability becomes the norm

  • 1962: Algeria’s independence is recognized

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France and Algeria

  • many consider Algeria to be considered part of Fr

    • independence conflict becomes violent

      • 1958: Charles de Gaulle is put back into power

  • 1962: Algerian independence is recognized

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Sub-Saharan Africa - deconlonization

  • GB and Fr give aid to the economy of Sub-saharan african countries and increase economics after colonization

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Stalin - post WW1

  • returns to rigid dictatorship

    • created the “American Threat” he imagined

  • repressed millions of Soviets

    • 1/2 of men died and large-scale purges begin

    • 1949: Jews defined as “Pro-Western” and persecuted

  • industry and military are #1 priority; standard of living plummets

  • Stalinist system spreads to E Euro; 1-party state with red army to support them

    • religion is outlawed

    • industry is nationalized

    • ideological indoctrination

    • middle classes stripped of possessions

  • 1953: Stalin dies

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Yugoslavia

  • only successfful opposition to USSR in E Euro

  • Under control of Tito

  • 1948: Tito broke from Soviet control but remains a communist state

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De-Stalinization

  • almost everyoone recognized reforms are necessary

  • secret police curbed and most gulags closed

  • economic changes; agriculture is currently devastated

  • recgonized soviets are isolated bc of strong W alliances formed by Stalin’s aggressive foreign policy

    • 1955: changes in soviet leadership

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Nikito Khruschev

(R: 1955-1964)

  • 1956: Secret Speech: denounced Stalin’s purges and crimes

    • strengthens reformers and de-Stalinization

      • standard of living improves

      • economy becomes more responsive to people’s needs

      • censorship and oppression is somewhat lessened

  • adopts “peaceful co-existence” with West

    • relaxation in USSR generates hope in E Euro

      • some rebellions occur

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Rebellions under USSR

  1. 1956: Poland - Gomillea eases dictatorship + reforms but stays loyal to the Warsaw pact; gets away with it bc USSR never really had extreme control of Poland

  2. 1956: Hungary - new movement of liberal communist leads come into power

    1. push USSR troops out

    2. pull out of Warsaw pact

      1. USSR send in tanks and troops to crush revolt

  3. 1957: Soviets launch Sputnik and freak the US out

    1. fear of communists abt losing power

US shifts from containment policy to eradication

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“Dr. Zhivago”

1956 - Boris Posternak

testament to triumph of human values and spirit

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De-Stalinization

slightly loosened control of USSR over E Bloc

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“A day in the life of ivan Denisovich” and “The Gulag Archipelago”

Alexander Solzhemitsyu

  • Exposes realities of the Gulags

    • kicked out but not killed

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Peaceful co-existence

possible for Communists and USSR to peacefully co-exist with the W

  • 1955: Geneva Summit - goes well between Khruschenv and Eisenhower; cold war tensions ease up

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USSR and crisis

  1. 1950: second berlin crisis - Kruschnev tries to provoke crisis but is unsuccessful

  2. 1960: U2 Crisis

  3. 1961: Third Berlin Crisis

  4. 1962: Cuban missle crisis

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U2 Crisis

1960

US sends U2 planes over USSR to spy on them

  • USSR knows but ignores bc they can’t shoot planes down

  • 1960: USSR captures and shoots down U2 plane

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Third Berlin Crisis

1961

Berlin wall is being built; US and USSR square off

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Cuban Missle crisis

1962

Kruschnev tries to install USSR nuclear missle sites in Cuba but is caught by US

  • results:

    • JFK challeges Kruschnev; Kruschnev backs off

    • 1964: Kruschnev is removed from power

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Leonid Brezhnev

1964-1982

  • poliices of RE-stalinization

    • no further reforms

    • no further humiliation by US

      • massive build up of nuclear power by USSR

      • never ends up provoking US

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USSR and Czechslovakia

  • 1968: Alexander Dubchek tries to launch reforms

    • believed communists and democrats could go hand in hand

    • tries to democratize Czeschslovakia while remaining loyal to Communist economy and Warsaw pact

      • other E euro leaders follow his example

        • begin beggin Soviets to stop Dubchek

          • USSR sent 1/2 mil troops into Czechslovakia to remove Dubcheck and reforms

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Brezhnev Doctrine

USSR will intervene in communist countries as they see fit

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Post WW2 scientific and technological advancements

  • Atomic bomb

  • “Big Science”

    • large scientific organizations

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Space Race

  • 1957: Sputnik: 1st man-made satellite is launched by USSR

  • 1958: US creates NASA and National Defense Education Act

  • 1961: USSR puts 1st man in orbit

    • JFK pledges to put man on the moon by end of decade

  • 1969: Neil Armstrong lands on the moon

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European Brain Drain

  • 1950's-1960s: Euro scientists are leaving for the US

  • 1970s: Euro Big Science begins catching up

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effects of scientific and tech advancement

  1. extreme specialization - rate of discovery is so rapid, scientists must focus on 1 topic

  2. team model

  3. new group of scientific bureaucrats and administrations emerges

  4. more government regulation and environmental protection

  5. science becomes increasingly dependent on government funding

  6. science becomes extremely competitive

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Post WW2 Society

  • more social mobility

  • middle class changes

  • lower classes become more open and flexible

  • regulatory welfare state

  • standard of living improves

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causes of changes to middle class

  1. need for managers and bureaucrats

  2. based on specialized skills

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effects of changes to middle class

class is opened up bc anyone from any class can acquire increased access to education

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changes in lower class

  • more open and flexible

  • move from rural areas to cities

  • working class stops growing in cities because of transition to service-based economy

  • increased education

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Regulatory welfare state

  • more and expanded social welfare programs

  • national healthcare, family allowances, maternity leave, low-income housing, unemployment insurance

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improvements in standard of living

  • buy lots of consumer goods

    • more accessible

    • less visble debt with social welfare programs

  • huge increase in leisure time and activity and travel

  • widespread car ownership

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Youth culture

  • 1960s: become more leftist

    • results in counter-culture

  • increasingly against middle class conformity, racism, and imperialism

  • sexual revolution

  • protests emerge out of universities

  • liberal arts vs practical education

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Sexual revolution

1960s

Started by invention of birth control pill

  • people have more sex

  • more unmarried couples living together

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university protests

  • want simple, purer society because of increased rapid tech

  • universities are overcrowded because of baby boom

  • students are increased say in how students are run

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Student revolts in Paris

1960

  • Students demanded cirricular changes amd more decision making power

  • others engage in “Non-left” critique on society; criticizing society from non-Soviet Marxist POV

  • May 1968: spontaneous general strikes

    • De Gaulle sends in troops and calls for new elections

      • his party wins because people are not in support of revolution

  • ends idealism of the 1960s and shift to conflict of uncertainty of 1970s and 1980s

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increase in european immigration - cold war

  • increased immigration causes changes to religious and cultural life

  • more immigration to central/w euro because of econ development in 1950s-60s

  • 1970: economic downturn; immigrant families become targets of anti-immigration movements and extreme political parties

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patterns of post cold war migration

  1. small farmers leave rural areas for urban areas within countries

  2. migrant workers immigrate to urban centers for jobs

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Guest-worker programs

  • implemented by countries to recruit labor

    • ex: W Germany

  • 1970s: foreign guest workers = 12% of workforce in W Germany and Fr

  • immigrants aren’t always welcome

    • victims of extreme nationalist parties

      • ex: French National Front; anti-immigration

    • tend to live in ethnic enclaves

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impact of multi-culturalism and ethnic diversity - cold war

  • contributions to food, literature, and film

  • muslim immigrants - extremists cause hyper-nationalist reactions against muslim immigrants

    • face increased immigration limits

  • conflicting arguments and views within countries when it comes to culture and migrants

    • some welcome diversity; others oppose new cultures and people

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detente

1970

deliberate lessening of cold war tensions

  • willy brandt, nixon, and communist poland

    • later Jimmy Carter

    • 1970: willy brandt visits communist poland

  • ostpolitic

  • treaties with USSR, Poland, and Czeschslovakia

  • 1975: Helinski accords

  • 1979: USSR invades Afghanistan

  • Late 1970’s: Detente has faded

Brandt starts detente

nixon broadens detente

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ostpolitic

Eastern Politics - pursued by Willy Brandt

formally recognizes existing boundaries in exchange for mutual remediations of force

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Willy Brandt

  • chancellor of W Germany

  • 1970: visits Communist Poland

  • pursued ostpolitic

  • makes treaties USSR, Poland, and Czechslovakia

  • entered negotiations with E Germ while not pursuing re-unification

brandt starts detente

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why does detente fail

  • USSR and E Euro ignore human rights provisions of Helinski accords

  • 1979: USSR invades Afghansitan

    • Western alliance doesn’t intervene

  • Pres Carter tries to impose econ sanctions on USSR but only GB agrees

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helinski accords

1975

agree that boundaries in Euro won’t be changed by force and guarantees of human rights and political freedoms

  • 35 nations sign - including US and USSR

  • USSR and E Euro don’t enforce human rights provisions

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1980s conservatism

  • US - Ronald Raegan

  • GB - Margaret Thatcher

  • W Germ - Helmut Kohl

Result:

  • NATO Revitalized

  • US military increases

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1970s-1980s economy

  • energy crisis in US and W Euro

    • 1973: OPEC: Arab oil embargo

      • oil shipments cut off from ME

    • results in stagflation; combination of economic stagnation and inflation

      • inflation increase

      • UE decrease

    • push for more conservative economic policies

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Margaret Thatcher - conservative economic policies

1980s

  • privatized industries

  • cut back on social welfare benefits

  • cracks down on unions’ powers and limits them

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Post WW2 women’s movement

  • revival of feminism

  • mid-1960s: birth rates decline in W and C Euro

  • Sminone de Beauvoir

  • Betty Friedan

women want:

  1. laws dealing with the workplace

  2. laws abt gender and family issues

    1. divorces, abortion, rape, domestic violence

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“The Second Sex”

1949 - Simone de Beauvoir

Women are naturally free but “imprisoned” by social norms and constraints

  • only through creative action and self-assertion could women break free of “inferior” status

  • existentialist, self-determination

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“The Feminine Mystique”

1963 - betty friedan

women are forced to conform to "infantilization” by the pressures of husband and children

  • examined women who were more educated and unfulfilled by the homefront

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USSR up to 1985

  • 1970s-1980s: USSR seemed stable

    • standard of living increase; gap between elites and everyone else is still big

    • russian nationalism - source of stability

      • leaders feared moves to democracy would cause non-russian ethnic groups to demand autonomy

    • re-stalinization under Brezhnev

  • changes:

    • growth of urban population

    • 4x increase in scientists, technicians, managers, etc,

    • regime allowed free discussions BUT ONLY within certain subjects

      • excludes politics

      • result: form of public opinion can be found

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USSR - Poland

  • never able to collectivize agriculture

  • never able to eliminate the catholic church

  • never est total control

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ussr - poland: economic crisis

1970s-1980’s

  • causes unrest in Poland

  • pope john paul ii

  • solidarity movement

    • gdansk agreement

    • self limiting revolution

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pope john paul ii

  • 1978: becomes pope

very critical of USSR and becomes a rallying point for Poland

  • 1981: USSR fails to assassinate him

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solidarity movement

Aug 1980-1981 - led by lech Walesa

  • aug 1980: 16k Polish workers go on strike in Gdansk at the Lenin Shipyards

    • other Polish workers join in solidarity

  • demand free unions, right to strike, free speech and economic reforms

  • 1981: government concedes to their demands

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Gdansk agreement

1981

recognizes free unions, right to strike, free speech and economic reforms

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solidarity movement - leaders’ dispute

march 1981

  • walesa agrees to moderate polish reforms which aggravates his more extreme followers

  • 1981: poland under pressure from USSR

    • Dec 1981: USSR cracks down on Solidarity movement

      • outlaws solidary and arrests leaders

      • instills general Jaruzelski as next leader

    • solidarity is forced underground but thrives

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Yuri Andropov

  • 1982: Becomes new leader of USSR

    • grants a few moderate reforms to increase personal incentive in the economy

      • growing class of “experts” want increased input in decision-making too

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Mikhail Gorbachev

  • 1985: becomes leader of USSR

  • believes in communism but felt that USSR was behind the W and needed to catch up; USSR’s status as a world power was being hurt

    • wants reform to SAVE communism

    • believes arms race is killing the USSR

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Perestroika (restructuring)

Gorbachev

  • easing of government price controls; gives state-run businesses more autonomy

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Glasnost (openness)

Gorbachev

  • 1986: Chernobyl disaster forces USSR to allow SOME free discussion of the events that had occurred

    • goes farther than anticipated when free speech and free expression dissolves concept of limited free discussion

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democratization

Gorbachev

  • attacks on government corruption in USSR

    • leads to new political culture: challenging communist monopoly on power

      • non-rus ethinic groups demand greater autonomy

        • gorbachev is willing to negotiate

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gorbachev foreign policy

better relationships with the west

  • 1989: pulls USSR troops from Afghanistan

  • ended arms race with Raegan

    • I987: INF Treaty

  • 1988: Repudiates the breschnev doctrine

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Poland - 1989 revolution

  • 1988: economic problems and solidarity movement refuse to work with military government; results on crisis

    • solidarity demands reforms

    • poland looks towards USSR, but breschnev doctrine has been repealed

  • agreement is reached

    • June 1989: new elections for seats in parliament

      • people ignore election rules

        • no communist majority or intervention from USSR

        • New government and reforms

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Poland - new government

  • Reforms:

    1. outlaw secret police

    2. gradual replacement of communist government officials

    3. quickly reforms to capitalist economy

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Hungary - 1989 revolution

  • mary 1988: reform communist government in power but people want more

  • early 1990: free elections; rapid transision to capitalism and democracy

    • opens border with austria

    • people in communist hungary go to non-communist austria

      • eventually people from E Germany go to austria too

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East Germany - 1989 revolution

  • begin fleeing towards austria

    • divisons between leavers and stayers arise

      • stayers want to make communists work with democrats; unsuccessful

  • nov 1989: berlin wall is built

  • Spring 1989: reform government allows elections

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velvet revolution

Dec 1989 - Czechoslovakia

hude demonstrations in Prague

  • led by Vacles Havel: leader who emerges for democracy movement; elected as president when communism ends

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End of USSR

  • Feb 1990: Gorbachev promises free elections; occur

    • communists take a big loss

      • lithuania is able to declare independence from USSR

        • Gorbachev places embargo on them but doesn’t send in troops

    • new constitution eliminates communist monopoly on power

    • Gorbachev is elected president but his power os failing

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Boris Yeltsin

  • May 1990: head of russian parliament

  • says russia will declare independence from USSR

  • Aug 1991: attempted hardline communist coup

    • Gorbachev is kidnapped

    • leads massive resistance in moscow support by army

      • coup collapses

  • Dec 25, 1991: Russia and rest of countries leave USSR; USSR no longer exists

    • replaced by Commonwealth of Independent states

      • problems adapting to capitalism and democracy

        • never truly resolved

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