Particles - A level Physics Edexcel

studied byStudied by 3 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

What is the order of the scientists in the history of the atom?

1 / 111

encourage image

There's no tags or description

Looks like no one added any tags here yet for you.

112 Terms

1

What is the order of the scientists in the history of the atom?

1) Thomson 2) Rutherford 3) Bohr 4) Chadwick

New cards
2

What did Thomson discover about particles?

He used cathode rays to theorise the plum pudding.

New cards
3

What did Rutherford discover about particles?

The Geiger Marsden experiment with gold foil showed atoms are mostly made up of empty space and the nucleus is charged.

New cards
4

What did Bohr discover about particles?

Electrons in orbitals, electrons have fixed energies

New cards
5

What did Chadwick discover about particles?

Neutrons in the nucleus

New cards
6

What are the quarks?

Up, down, charm, strange, top and bottom

New cards
7

What are the leptons?

Electron, muon, tauon, electron neutrino, muon neutrino and tau neutrino

New cards
8

What are the bosons (force carriers)?

Gluon, photon, Z boson and W boson

New cards
9

What is the charge on an up?

2/3

New cards
10

What is the charge on a down?

-1/3

New cards
11

What is the charge on a charm?

2/3

New cards
12

What is the charge on a strange?

-1/3

New cards
13

What is the charge on a top?

2/3

New cards
14

What is the charge on a bottom?

-1/3

New cards
15

What is the charge on an electron?

-1

New cards
16

What is the charge on an electron neutrino?

0

New cards
17

What is the charge on a muon?

-1

New cards
18

What is the charge on a muon neutrino?

0

New cards
19

What is the charge on a tauon?

-1

New cards
20

What is the charge on a tau neutrino?

0

New cards
21

What is the charge on a gluon?

0

New cards
22

What is the charge on a photon?

0

New cards
23

What is the charge on a Z boson?

0

New cards
24

What is the charge on a W boson?

+/- 1

New cards
25

What is the charge on a higgs boson?

0

New cards
26

What is the symbol of a tauon?

τ

New cards
27

What is the symbol for a muon?

μ

New cards
28

What does the standard model show?

Matter

New cards
29

How do anti particles compare with the standard model?

They have the same mass but opposite charge

New cards
30

What's the anti-particle of an electron?

Positron (e^+)

New cards
31

Whats the anti-particle of a muon?

Muon plus (μ^+)

New cards
32

Whats the anti-particle of a tauon?

Tauon plus (τ^+)

New cards
33

What are leptons?

Fundamental particles

New cards
34

What are hadrons?

Mesons and baryons so matter/antimatter that isn't lepton

New cards
35

What are mesons?

Quark: Antiquark pairs

New cards
36

Examples of mesons

Pions and Kaons

New cards
37

What are baryons?

3 quarks

New cards
38

Examples of baryons

Nucleons: Protons and Neutrons, lambda, sigma and xi

New cards
39

How do you figure out lepton numbers?

If it is a lepton, it has a lepton number of +1. If its not a lepton, it has a lepton number of 0. If its an anti-lepton, it has a lepton number of -1.

New cards
40

How are muons and tauons created and what are they like?

They are created in high energy collisions so are unstable and short-lived

New cards
41

How do you figure out baryon numbers?

Quarks have a baryon number of +1/3, antiquarks have a baryon number of -1/3 and leptons have a baryon number of 0

New cards
42

What is a proton made up of?

uud

New cards
43

What is a neutron made up of?

udd

New cards
44

Examples of particle detectors

Bubble chamber and geiger muller tube

New cards
45

Examples of particle accelerators

LINAC, cyclotron and synchrotron

New cards
46

What happens in a LINAC?

Charged particles in a vacuum are accelerated in a straight line by a high frequency alternating voltage

New cards
47

What is the acceleration in a LINAC due to?

Repulsive and attractive forces between tubes because of the alternating pd

New cards
48

What does increasing the length of the tubes in the LINAC mean?

Travel through the tubes is matched with the alternating pd

New cards
49

What does the length of the LINAC limit?

The max speed

New cards
50

What is the advantage of the LINAC?

It can accelerate greater masses than cylotrons and synchrotrons as these require particles to be bent by a magnetic field so are limited by the strength of the magnetic field

New cards
51

What happens in a cyclotron?

Charged particles are accelerated in a vacuum chamber by alternating voltage across the gap of two dees

New cards
52

What ends the path of a charged particle in a cyclotron?

Magnetic field

New cards
53

What is the advantage of the cyclotron over the LINAC?

It has a spiral path so the particles travel a greater distance so go to greater speeds than the LINAC

New cards
54

How is a circular path maintained in a cyclotron?

As the particles gain kinetic energy (relativistic issues E=mc^2) the strength of the magnetic fields and frequency of the electric fields are varied.

New cards
55

What shape is a synchrotron?

Donut (torus) rather than disc shaped

New cards
56

What type of accelerator is CERN?

Synchrotron

New cards
57

What does a bubble chamber consist of?

A large cylinder with a liquid (eg hydrogen) heated to just below its boiling point

New cards
58

How are particles detected in a bubble chamber?

Charged particles ionise the liquid, forming microscopic bubbles which reflect light when illuminated

New cards
59

In a bubble chamber, what is bubble density around a track proportional to?

A particle's energy loss

New cards
60

What is the equation for a curved path in a bubble chamber?

r=mv/Bq

New cards
61

What does the direction of a particle track in bubble chamber indicate?

Charge

New cards
62

What does the radius of a particle track in a bubble chamber indicate?

Mass, speed and momentum

New cards
63

What are Geiger muller tubes for?

Detecting ionising radiation

New cards
64

What does a Geiger muller tube consist of?

A chamber filled with inert gas. The chamber contains two electrodes with a high pd across them.

New cards
65

What happens when a particle and antiparticle pair collide?

They annihilate. This means that their mass is converted to energy, The opposite can happen - energy can be converted to a particle-antiparticle pair. This is called pair production.

New cards
66

What is the rest mass of an electron?

9.11x10^-31 kg which is the same as 0.51MeV/c^2

New cards
67

What is rest mass energy?

The energy required to make a particle from energy

New cards
68

What must be conserved in particle antiparticle acceleration?

Charge, momentum and energy

New cards
69

Define matter

Any object that has mass or volume (occupies space). Matter is usually classified in four states or phases: solid, liquid, gas and plasma

New cards
70

What are the three types of mass?

Inertial mass, active gravitational mass and passive gravitational force.

New cards
71

What is inertial mass?

A quantitive measure of an object's resistance to acceleration

New cards
72

What is active gravitational mass?

A measure of magnitude of the gravitational force which is exerted by an object

New cards
73

What is passive gravitational force?

A measure of magnitude of the gravitational force which is experienced by an object when interactive with another object

New cards
74

What is the atomic mass unit (u)?

1.661x10^-27 kg

New cards
75

What is Einstein's theory of special relativity?

1) The laws of physics are the same for all non-accelerating observers 2) The speed of light within a vacuum is the same no matter the speed at which an observer travels

New cards
76

Why do only charged particles leave tracks in particle detectors?

When a charged particle passes through a substance it causes ionisation and electrons are knocked out of atoms so the particle leaves a trail of ions as it goes

New cards
77

Why do charged particles in particle detectors follow a curved tracks?

A charged particle moving in a magnetic field will experience a force. This means that the particles are deflected by the magnetic field.

New cards
78

How does the radius relate to the momentum?

The larger the curve radius of a particle track, the greater the momentum

New cards
79

How do positive and negative particle curves compare?

Positive and negative particles curve opposite ways

New cards
80

How do you find out which particles are positive and which are negative on a particle detector diagram?

Use Fleming's left hand rule

New cards
81

Why do you see spirals on particle detector diagrams?

Interactions with the detector decrease the kinetic energy of the particle so the radius decreases as the particle loses kinetic energy

New cards
82

What is the source of the electric field in a LINAC?

A high frequency alternating potential difference

New cards
83

Why do the electrons travel with constant velocity in the cylinders in a LINAC?

The electrons 'drift' in the cylinders because there is no electric field inside the cylinders due to the shielding so no force acts on the electron in the electric field and Newton's 1st law says that if there is no resultant force acting on a body it will move at a constant velocity.

New cards
84

Explain why the cylinders in a LINAC gradually increase in length along the accelerator

The cylinders must get longer as the electrons speed up for the time inside the cylinders to be constant - the passage of the electron between drift cylinders is synchronized with the phase of the electric field

New cards
85

What is a pion plus made of?

An up and an anti-down

New cards
86

What is a pion minus made of?

A down and an anti-up

New cards
87

What is a neutral pion made of?

An up and an anti-up

New cards
88

What is a kaon plus made of?

An up and an anti strange

New cards
89

What is a kaon minus made of?

An anti up and a strange

New cards
90

What is a kaon neutral made of?

A down and an anti strange

New cards
91

Whats the atomic number?

The number of protons in the nucleus. Its the atomic number that defines an element - no two elements will have the same number of protons.

New cards
92

How does the atomic number tell you about the chemical properties of an atom?

In a neutral atom, the number of electrons equals the number of protons. The element's reactions and chemical behaviour depend on the number of electrons.

New cards
93

What does the mass number of an atom tell you?

How many protons and neutrons are in the nucleus

New cards
94

What is the equation for the force exerted on a current- carrying wire in a magnetic field perpendicular to the current?

F=BIl

New cards
95

What equation shows the force acting on a single charge particle moving through a magnetic field?

F=BQv

New cards
96

What are the uses of a cyclotron?

Cyclotrons can be used in medicine to produce radioactive tracers or high-energy beams of radiation for use in radiotherapy

New cards
97

What are cyclotrons made of?

A cyclotron is made up of two hollow semicircular electrodes with a uniform magnetic field applied perpendicular to the plane of the electrodes, and an alternating pd is applied between the electrodes

New cards
98

What is the kinetic energy equation including charge?

KE=QV

New cards
99

Define electrovolt

1 electrovolt is the kinetic energy carried by an electron after it had been accelerated through a pd of 1 volt

New cards
100

What is thermionic emission?

When you heat a metal, its free electrons gain a load of thermal energy. Give them enough energy and they break free from the surface of the metal - this is called thermionic emission. Once they've been emitted, the electrons can be accelerated by an electric field in an electron gun.

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 14 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 15 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 13 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 139 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(3)
note Note
studied byStudied by 68 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard51 terms
studied byStudied by 94 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard54 terms
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard38 terms
studied byStudied by 13 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard452 terms
studied byStudied by 67 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard30 terms
studied byStudied by 43 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard51 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard41 terms
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard32 terms
studied byStudied by 17 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)