Skeletal system

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what are the main components of the skeletal system

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1

what are the main components of the skeletal system

bones cartilage and ligaments

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2

what is in each bone

connective tissue blood vessels nerve lymph vessels cartilage connective tissue coverings

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3

hyaline cartilage

found in articular costal respiratory and nasal

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4

elastic cartilage

external ear and epiglottis

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5

fibrocartilage

meniscus between vertebrae

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6

axial skeleton

creates the longitudinal axis of the body houses vital organs

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7

axial skeleton pic

knowt flashcard image
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8

appendicular skeleton

appendages girdles connects to axial much greater mobility

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9

appendicular skeleton pic

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10

long bone

longer than wide humerus femur

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11

short

roughly cube-shaped ex wrist and ankle bone

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flat

thin flattened curved ribs sternum cranial bones

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13

irregular

complex shape vertebrae

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14

sesamoid

shaped like a sesame seed at points of high friction patella

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15

sutural

forms between cranial bones vary between individuals

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16

compact bone

forms outer layer of most bones

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17

spongy bone

surround inner cavity

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18

compact bone pic

knowt flashcard image
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19

spongy bone pic

whats the deepest one

<p>whats the deepest one</p>
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20

diploe

layer of spongy bone in cranial bones

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21

short irregular and flat bone anatomy

sandwich of compact bone - spongy bone - compact bone

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22

epiphysis

end

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23

diaphysis

middle

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24

metaphysis

connects epiphyses to diaphysis

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25

layers of long bones

periosteum

compact

spongy

endosteum

medulllary cavity ( marrow

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26

connective tissue- periosteum loc

covers the outer surface of living bone

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27

periosteum func

isolates and protects bone

supports blood vessels and nerves

connects to other tissues

growth and repair

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28

fibrous layer

interwoven collagen fibers with either deep fascia or bone

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29

osteogenic layer

contains osteogenic cells (bone stem cells)

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30

endosteum location

lines medullary cavity and covers spongy bone surface

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31

endosteum function

reticular connective tissue

contains osteogenic cells that are important for bone growth

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32

skeletal blood supply

extensive network of blood vessels

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33

skeletal innervation

sensory neurons throughout the periosteum

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34

osseous tissue

support connective tissue

contain specialized cells -protein fibers-ground substance

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35

osteogenic cells

stem cells

formed from mesenchyme and give rise to osteoblasts

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36

osteogenic cells processes

osteogenic cells - mitosis - daughter osteogenic cells - differentiation - osteoblasts

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37

osteoblasts

builders and secrete organic components of extracellular matrix

initiate calcification

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38

osteogenic cells

stem cells

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39

osteoblats are

builders

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40

osteocytes are

maintenance crew

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41

osteocytes

mature bone cells

maintain existing matrix in response to bone density needs

act as strain sensors - regulate remolding in response to mech areas

send signals to osteoblasts and osteoclasts via dendritic process

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42

osteoclasts are

destroyers

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43

osteoclats

derived from blood cells

contain resorption bays where they secrete acid and proteolytic enzymes to dissolve matrix (bone respiration)

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44

special about osteoclasts

resorption bay

ruffled border

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45

resorption bay

pit in the compact bone where remodeling is active

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46

ruffled border

exaggerated portion of the osteoclasts membrane where enzymes and acid are released and broken-down minerals are brought into the cells

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47

osseous matrix organic

1/3 of matrix

produce and secretes by osteoblasts

glycosaminoglycans

proteoglycans

collagen fibers

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48

glycosaminoglycans

trap water due to negative charge

glycoproteins

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49

collagen fibers

fibrous protein arranged in helical form

very resistant to pulling forces

provides flexibility and a framework for the deposition of calcium crystals

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50

type 1 collagen fibers

must abundant collagen and also the most abundant protein in the human body

found in the bone as well as fibrous tissue like tendons ligaments and skin

glycine combo with another amino acid to make a collagen polypeptide three collagen polypeptides coil around each other to make tropocollagen

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51

inorganic matrix

other 2/3

crystallizes around collagen fibers

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52

osseous matrix

composite material

combined very strong slightly flexible matrix

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53

composite material

combo of a ceramic + polymer

inorganic on its on strong and inflexible

organic- tough but too flexible

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54

what does bone need for strength

collagen and minerals

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55

osseous matrix special property

the sacrificial bond between collagen molecules

break under mech stress which dissipates the force and reduces the likelihood of fracture

can reform once the stress is removed

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56

rickets

calcium deficiency due to lack of vitamin D

leads to bowed legs

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57

scurvy

problem with collagen synthesis due to vitamin c deficiency

leads to brittle bones that can fracture

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58

compact bone

functional unit bone

concentric lamellae around central canal

made up of osteons

perforating canals connect osteons to each other and medullary cavity

interstitial lamellae

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59

circumferential lamellae

surround entire bone at internal and external surfaces

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60

interstitial lamellae

fill in gaps between osteons

usually remnants of olds osteons

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61

spongy bone made of

spicules and trabeculae

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62

spicules and trabeculae

thin silvers or branching plates

interconnected spaces throughout

same cells as compact

strong but light

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63

compact bone vs spongy bone

compact

-dense

covers bone surface

thick where stress is high

handles stress well in one direction

spongy bone

-lightweight

resists stress from multiple directions

provides support for bone marrow

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64

diaphysis loc

shaft of long bone

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65

diaphysis func

leverage

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66

epiphysis loc

head of long bone

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67

epiphysis func

strengthen joint and surface area for the attachment of ligaments and tendons

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68

articular cartiledge

a thin layer of hyaline cartilage covering the articular surface of the bone as at a synovial joint, serving to reduce friction and ease joint movement

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69

periosteun

a layer of fibrous connective tissue covering surface of a bone

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70

lacuna

A small cavity or depression in a tissue such as bone or cartilage

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71

ossification

the formation of bone

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72

step one of intramembranous ossification

mesenchymal cells line blood cells

osteogenic cells become osteoblasts

osteoblasts start secreting osteoid

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73

second step of IO

calcium salts crystallize on osteoid calcification to spicules

osteoblasts turn into osteocytes when surrounded by matrix

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74

third step of IO

mesenchyme differentiates to periosteum

ossification centers meet and make branching plate called trabeculae

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75

fourth step of IO

osteoblasts in the periosteum crate outside layer of compact bone called diploe structure

continued remodeling of spongy bone by osteoblasts and osteoclasts

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76

calcification

deposition of ca

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77

ossification

replacement of connective tissue by bone tissue

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78

diploe

layer of spongy bone in cranial bones

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79

spongy bone

made of spicules and trabeculae

strong but light

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80

compact bone

mostly osteons and circumferential lamellae

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81

composite material

combo of ceramic and polymer

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82

inorganic on its own

strong but inflexible and would easily shatter

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83

organic on its own

tough but too flexible and wouldn’t resist direct pressure well

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84

what is the special property of the osseous matrix

sacrificial bonds between collagen molecules

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85

rickets

inorganic component deficiency which leads to bowed legs

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86

scurvy

organic component deficiency leads to brittle bones and problems with collagen synthesis

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87

osseous matrix

produced and secreted by osteoblasts

contain glycosaminoglycans

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88

perichondrium

fibrous connective tissue that envelops the surface of hyaline or elastic cartilage

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89

periosteum

layer of connective tissue that covers the surface of a bone

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90

chondrocytes

cartilage cell that was chondroblast enclosed in lacunae in cartilage matrix

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91

endochondral ossification precursor and bones it creates

use hyaline cartilage precursor - most bones below the skull

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92

step one of endochondral ossifciation

mesenchyme turns into hyaline cartilage surrounded by perichondrium

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93

step 2 of endochondral ossifciation

bone growth begins in middle of future diaphysis creating primary ossification center

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94

step 3A of EO

periosteal but invades shaft making primary marrow cavity

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95

step 3B of EO

secondary ossification centers form

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96

step 4 of EO

secondary marrow cavities form in epiphyses

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97

step 5 of eo

further growth due to inc in cartilage first followed by ossification

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98

epiphyseal plate

thin wall or cartilage separating diaphysis and epiphysis

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99

primary ossification

marrow cavity formed

replaces all cartilage with bone

located in diaphysis

occurs before birth

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100

secondary ossification

no marrow cavity

some cartilage is left for the epiphyseal plate and articular cartilage

found in epiphyses

occurs around the time of birth

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