psych unit 2

studied byStudied by 0 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

Franz Gall

1 / 184

encourage image

There's no tags or description

Looks like no one added any tags here yet for you.

185 Terms

1

Franz Gall

proposed phrenology

New cards
2

Phrenology

the detailed study of the shape and size of the cranium as a supposed indication of character and mental abilities.

New cards
3

Neurons

a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system

New cards
4

Cell body (soma)

the part of a neuron that contains the nucleus; the cell's life-support center

New cards
5

dendrite

the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive and integrate messages, conducting impulses toward the cell body. branches off the cell body

New cards
6

axon

the neuron extension that passes messages through its branches to other neurons or to muscles or glands. passes messages through its terminal branches. extends off the dendrite.

New cards
7

myelin sheath

a fatty tissue layer segmentally encasing the axons of some neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed as neural impulses hop from one node to the next. As the myelin sheath is laid down up to about age 25, neural efficiency, judgment, and self-control grow. If the myelin sheath degenerates, multiple sclerosis results.

New cards
8

multiple sclerosis

communication to muscles slows with eventual loss of muscle control.

New cards
9

glial cells

cells in the nervous system that support. nourish, and protect neurons; they also play a role in learning, thinking, and memory.

New cards
10

action potential

a neural impulse, a brief electrical charge that travels down the axon. a neuron sends a message by firing an impulse, "action potential". neuron stimulation causes the electrical charge to go above -55 mV, triggering the action potential.

New cards
11

the temporary inflow of positively charged ions - neural impulse

New cards
12

resting potential

positively charged sodium ions are in the fluid outside an axons membrane and large, negatively charged protein ions and smaller positively charged potassium ions in the fluid's interior (mostly negative)

New cards
13

Depolarization

the loss of the inside/outside charge difference. when a neuron fires, positively charged sodium ions (attracted to the negative interior) flow through the newly opened axon channels, causing the loss of the difference in charges. depolarization cases more axon channels to open.

New cards
14

excitatory neurotransmitters

like pushing a neuron's gas pedal; increases the likelihood of an action potential (Glutamate)

New cards
15

inhibatory neurotransmitters

chemicals released from the terminal buttons of a neuron that inhibit the next neuron from firing; like pushing the neuron's brake. decreases the likelihood of an action potential. GABA

New cards
16

threshold potential

-55mV

  • The minimum membrane potential must be reached in order for an action potential to be generated.

  • If the excitatory signals exceed the inhibitory signals by a minimum intensity, the combined signals trigger an action potential.



New cards
17

Refractory period

the time following an action potential during which a new action potential cannot be initiated. the neuron can't fire until after it returns to its resting state.

New cards
18

all or none response

a neuron's reaction of either firing (with a full-strength response) or not firing. increasing the level of stimulation above the threshold will not increase the intensity of the reaction. a strong stimulation can trigger more neurons to fire and to fore more often, but does not affect the action potential's strength and speed.

New cards
19

synapse

the gap between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron

New cards
20

neurotransmitters

chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons. when released by the sending neuron, neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind to the receptor sites on the receiving neuron.

unlocks channels at the receiving site and either excite or inhibit the receiving neuron.

New cards
21

reputake

When a sending neuron reabsorbs any leftover neurotransmitters to be reused. leftover neurotransmitters can also be broken down by enzymes.

New cards
22

Agonist molecules

increases neurotransmitter activity by:

  • unlocks channels at the receiving site and either excite or inhibit the receiving neuron.

  • blocking reuptake

  • -or be similar enough (mimics) to a neurotransmitter to bind to its excitatory/inhibitory effects


New cards
23

Antagonist molecules

Decreases a neurotransmitter's action by blocking production or release

-enough like natural neurotransmitters to occupy its receptor site and block its effect but not similar enough to stimulate receptor and produce effects

New cards
24

Acetylcholine

functions: memory, movement (muscle contraction), attention/arousal, learning

  • oversupply: muscle convulsions

  • Undersupply: memory loss (Alzheimer's) and paralysis

New cards
25

Dopamine

Functions: movement, pleasure/reward, learning, attention

  • Oversupply: schizophrenia (treated by antagonist drugs that block dopamine)

  • undersupply: Parkinson's disease (tremors/decreased mobility)

New cards
26

Serotonin

functions: mood, sleep, alertness, appetite, anxiety

  • undersupply: depression, sleep disorders, aggression

  • *anti depressants are agonists

New cards
27

Norepinephrine

functions: arousal/attention, neurotransmitter and hormone, sympathetic nervous system (activates fight or flight)

  • oversupply: anxiety, panic attacks, mania

  • undersupply: depression

    *adrenal glands release this and epinephrine

New cards
28

GABA

functions: sleep, relaxation

  • undersupply: seizures, insomnia, anxiety disorders, Huntington's disease

  • *MAJOR INHIBATORY NUEROTRANSMITTER

New cards
29

Glutamate

functions: memory, learning

  • oversupply: migraines/seizures, possible CNS disease

  • *MAJOR EXCITATORY NEUROTRANSMITTER

New cards
30

endorphins

functions: inhibit pain (released in response to pain/vigorous exercise) and pleasure, can be either neurotransmitter or hormone

  • oversupply: higher pain threshold, runner's high

  • undersupply: lower pain threshold, lowered natural production due to use of opiates (results in withdrawal cravings)

New cards
31

neurotransmitters

*produced in CNS

New cards
32

hormones

*produced by pituitary/adrenal glands:

New cards
33

Nervous system

the body's electrochemical communication network consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous system. RELEASES NEUROTRANSMITTERS VERY FAST!!

New cards
34

CNS (central nervous system)

the spinal cord and brain

New cards
35

spinal cord

two way information highway connecting the peripheral nervous system and the brain

New cards
36

PNS (peripheral nervous system)

the sensory and motor neurons that connect the CNS to the rest of the body. two divisions are autonomic and somatic

New cards
37

nerves

bundled axons that form neural cables connecting the central nervous system with muscles, glands, and sense organs

New cards
38

Motor neurons

Carry outgoing information from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands (Exits CNS)

-Efferent

New cards
39

sensory neurons

neurons that carry incoming information from the body's tissues and sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord (CNS). enters CNS.

-afferent

New cards
40

interneurons

neurons within the brain and spinal cord; they communicate internally and process information between the sensory input and motor output

New cards
41

somatic nervous system

PART OF PNS. controls the body's skeletal muscles. also called the skeletal nervous system. enables VOLUNTARY control of skeletal system.

New cards
42

autonomic nervous system

PART OF PNS. controls the glands and muscles of the internal organs (ex heart). two divisions are sympathetic and parasympathetic. INVOLUNTARY movement

New cards
43

parasympathetic nervous system

the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy. deaccelerates heartbeat, lowers blood pressure, stimulates digestion, increases saliva production, processes waste

New cards
44

sympathetic nervous system

the division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations. FIGHT OR FLIGHT. accelerates heartbeat, raised blood pressure, inhibits digestion, perspiration, pupils dilated, inhibits saliva

New cards
45

ascending neural fibers

send up sensory information

New cards
46

descending neural fibers

send back motor-control information

New cards
47

reflexes

simple, automatic responses to sensory stimuli, such as the knee-jerk response, involves singular sensory neuron and singular motor neuron

-simple reflexes occur only in the spinal cord before the information reaches the brain

New cards
48

endocrine system

the body's "slow" chemical communication system; a set of glands that SECRETE HORMONES into the bloodstream. slower than nervous system

New cards
49

hypothalamus

gland of endocrine system; brain region that controls the pituitary gland

New cards
50

pituitary gland

regulates growth hormones and oxytocin, and controls other endocrine glands.

New cards
51

thyroid gland

affects metabolism

New cards
52

Parathyroid

helps regulate the level of calcium in the blood

New cards
53

adrenal glands

secrete hormones (epinephrine and norepinephrine) that help arouse the body in times of stress. autonomic nervous system orders these glands.

New cards
54

pancreas

Regulates the level of sugar in the blood

New cards
55

testis

secretes male sex hormones

New cards
56

ovary

secretes female sex hormones

New cards
57

leison

tissue destruction

New cards
58

EEG (electroencephalogram)

An amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain's surface. These waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp.

-most commonly used for epilepsy and seizures, analyzes brain as a whole

New cards
59

MEG (magnetoencephalography)

measures magnetic fields from the brain's natural electrical activity

New cards
60

CT/CAT (computed tomography)

a series of X-RAY photographs of the brain taken from different angles and combined by computer to create an image that represents a slice through the brain. SHOWS STRUCTURE, can reveal brain damage.

New cards
61

PET (positron emission tomography) scan

a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task. INJECTS GLUCOSE!!! SHOWS ACTIVITY!

New cards
62

MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)

a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images of soft tissue. MRI scans show brain anatomy. more accurate than CT. again, SHOWS STRUCTURE

New cards
63

fMRI

same thing as MRI but shows BOTH FUNCTION AND STRUCTURE

New cards
64

shows structure

CT, MRI, fMRI

New cards
65

shows activity/function

EEG, MEG, PET, fMRI

New cards
66

Brainstem

the oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull; the brainstem is responsible for automatic survival functions

New cards
67

medulla

the base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing

New cards
68

pons

Sits above medulla and helps coordinate movement and controls sleep

New cards
69

thalamus

the brain's sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem; it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla

New cards
70

reticular formation

a nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal. helps control arousal and filters incoming stimulus -responsible for sleep-wake cycle (REM)

New cards
71

Cerebellum

the "little brain" at the rear of the brainstem; functions include processing sensory input and coordinating movement output and balance

New cards
72

limbic system

neural system located below the cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions and drives

New cards
73

Amyglada

part of limbic system that plays key roles in fear, excitement, arousal, and aggression

New cards
74

Hypothaalmus

Responsible for thirst, hunger, sex drive, temperature, sleeping. helps govern endocrine system via pituitary gland, linked to emotion and reward

New cards
75

Hippocampus

helps process explicit (conscious) memories for storage. decreases in size/function as we get older.

New cards
76

synaptic vesicles

Tiny pouches or sacs in the axon terminals that contain chemicals called neurotransmitters.

New cards
77

anti depressants

block reuptake of serotonin so there is more serotonin neurotransmitters in the synapse.

New cards
78

Cerebral cortex

intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells covering the cerebral hemispheres; the body’s ultimate control/information processing center

New cards
79

frontal lobes

lies behind the forehead, involved in speaking, muscle movement, making plants and judgement

New cards
80

parietal lobe

lying at the top of the head towards the rear, receives sensory input for touch and body position

New cards
81

occipital lobe

back of the head, includes areas that receive information from the visual fields

New cards
82

temporal lobe

lies above the ears, includes auditory areas, each receiving information from the opposite ear

New cards
83

motor cortex

controls VOLUNTARY movement (rear of frontal lobe)

New cards
84

somatosensory (sensory) cortex

registers information from the skin senses and body movement (left hemisphere section receives input from the body’s right side)

New cards
85

auditory cortex

receives information from the ears (part of temporal lobe)

New cards
86

visual cortex

receives information from the eyes (in occipital lobe)

New cards
87

association areas

areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor/sensory functions; rather they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking.

New cards
88

prefrontal cortex

forward part of the frontal lobe that enables judgement, PLANNING, and processing new memories

New cards
89

Brocca’s area

language center located in the left frontal lobe, involved in expressive language

New cards
90

wenicke’s area

language center located in the left temporal lobe, involved in receptive language

New cards
91

plasticity

our brain adjusting to new experiences. the brain changes, especially during childhood, by reorganizing after damage or by building new pathways based on experience

New cards
92

neurogenesis

producing new neurons in an attempt to self-repair (either this or plasticity)

New cards
93

corpus callosum

neural fibers connecting the two hemispheres of the brain and carrying messages between them

New cards
94

split brains

a condition resulting from surgery that isolates the brain’s two hemispheres by cutting the fibers (mainly those of the corpus callosum) connecting them

New cards
95

visual field

the right sides of both retinas gather information from the left side of what you are looking at, vice versa. in each eye, information from the left half of your field of vision goes to your right hemisphere, and information from the right half of your vision field goes to your left hemisphere

New cards
96

split brain vs intact brain

intact: information is transferred across the corpus callosum from both hemispheres of the brain

split: cross-transference does not occur

New cards
97

left hemisphere

  • speaking and language

  • brocca’s and wernicke’s (expressive and receptive language)

  • math calculations

  • making literal interpretations

  • controlling right side of body

New cards
98

right hemisphere

  • perpetual tasks

  • making inferences

  • modulating speech

  • visual perception

  • recognition of emotion

  • controlling left side of body

New cards
99

consciousness

our subjective awareness of ourselves and our environment

New cards
100

cognitive neuroscience

combines the study of brain activity with how we learn, think, remember, and perceive

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 14 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 16 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 38 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 28 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 28 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 73 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 3479 people
Updated ... ago
4.6 Stars(9)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard138 terms
studied byStudied by 50 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard35 terms
studied byStudied by 237 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(9)
flashcards Flashcard31 terms
studied byStudied by 15 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard45 terms
studied byStudied by 47 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard35 terms
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard35 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard33 terms
studied byStudied by 436 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(6)
flashcards Flashcard38 terms
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)