Embryology final

studied byStudied by 2 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

Where is the genetic information (DNA) for the cell housed?

1 / 138

encourage image

There's no tags or description

Looks like no one added any tags here yet for you.

139 Terms

1

Where is the genetic information (DNA) for the cell housed?

Nucleus

New cards
2

Name the organelle that is responsible for producing intracellular energy

Mitochondria

ATP powerhouse of the cell

New cards
3

What phase of the cell cycle represents the initial resting stage

G1

Reduplication or resting phase

New cards
4

What is mitosis

The duplication of somatic cells

Chromosomes each has 46

New cards
5

What is meiosis

The duplication of sex cells

Chromosomes split in half

23 from mom and 23 from dad

New cards
6

What apoptosis

Programmed cell death and fragmentation

New cards
7

what is the purpose of the endometrium of the uterus

Provides the ideal environment for implantation and growth of the embryo

New cards
8

Name the periods of prenatal development

Proliferative period 0-2

Embryonic period 2-8 most sensitive

Fetal period 8weeks-9months

New cards
9

Name the two layers of skin

Epidermis develops from Ectodermal cells

Dermis develops from underlying mesoderm

New cards
10

The three dilations that form the primary brain vesicles are

Fore brain

Midbrain

Hindbrain

New cards
11

Identify the three types of connective tissue

Dense

Loose

Loose with special properties

New cards
12

What is the job for the tendon

Connects muscles to bone

New cards
13

Name the elements that compose the blood

RBC erythrocytes

WBC leukocytes

Platelets which are suspended in plasma

New cards
14

Leukocytes migrate between endothelial cells by a process known as

Diapedesis

New cards
15

name the most numerous WBC’s

Neutrophils

PMN’s

New cards
16

The lymphatic system is composed of

Lymph nodes

Thymus

Spleen

New cards
17

The initial skeletal component in the embryo is

Cartilage

New cards
18

Name the three types of cartilage

Fibrous(vertebral discs)

Elastic (external ear)

Hyaline(glasslike)

New cards
19

the process by which bone replaces cartilage is called

Endochondral bone formation

New cards
20

As long as bones are still growing this line (plate) appears

Epiphyseal line (plate)

Known as growth plate

New cards
21

Flat bones go through a direct transformation of connective tissue to bone in process known as

Intramembranous bone formation

New cards
22

name the source of nutrition of an embryo for the first few weeks of life

VITELLINE vascular system

New cards
23

Name the week that the heart begins to beat

4th week

New cards
24

Three types of muscle tissue

SKeletal*Voluntary striated

Smooth*involuntary, smooth

Cardiac *involuntary, striated with intercalated discs

New cards
25

Name the system that becomes active in transporting oxygen and nutrition around the 4th week of life:

Umbilical system

New cards
26

What period is a developing human __least__susceptible to teratogens:

•What period is it the most susceptible:

Least susceptible- proliferative period

Most susceptible- embryonic period

New cards
27

What cells do not undergo cell division

Neurons, skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle cells do not routinely undergo cell diviison

New cards
28

four primary tissue types

Neural tissue

Epithelial

Connective

Muscle

Never ever call me

New cards
29

Neural tissue is divided into two types

CNS -brain and spinal cord

PNS- Nerves and their ganglia

New cards
30

What is the basic structural unit of the nervous system

Neuron - Axons conduct nerve impulses away from the cell body

Dendrites receive/ conduct impulses to the cell body

New cards
31

How is epithelium described

Simple: single layer

Pseudostratified- all cells contact with he basal lamina, but not the surface

Stratified; several layers and only the basal cell layer is in contact with the basal lamina

New cards
32

Impulses pass from the CNS to involuntary muscles by which system

Autonomic nervous system

New cards
33

all sensations in the body are relayed to what system

CNS

New cards
34

Axons that exist outside the CNS are protected and insulated by

Myelin sheath

New cards
35

Which body system relies on neural stimuli to function

Endocrine system

New cards
36

What do ligaments do

Attach bones directly bone to bone

New cards
37

Name the classifications of bone

Compact (dense)

Cancellous (spongy; trabecular)

New cards
38

what are the functions of blood

Conducts oxygen to the cells

•Clots blood to prevent blood loss

•Regulates pH through a buffering system

•Regulates body temperature and provides protection from bacteria

New cards
39

The purpose of platelets

Clot formation

New cards
40

The largest organ in the body

skin

Integumentary system

New cards
41

Absorption of most of our nutrients occurs

In the small intestine

New cards
42

Nerve processes carrying information from the peripheral nervous system in muscles and glands to the CNS are known as:

Afferent (sensory) system

–Responses from the CNS to muscles and glands are known as Efferent (motor) system

New cards
43

What does the somatic nervous systme do

carries impulses to the voluntary or skeletal muscles (under conscious control(

New cards
44

what does the autonomic nervous system do

CARRIES impulses from the CNS to involuntary muscles (autopilot)

New cards
45

The purpose of the skeletal system

Framework to support muscles and ligaments

•Protection

•Hematopoietic system

New cards
46

`What type of bone protects the brain?

Membrane bone

New cards
47

The major function of the urinary system is

To control blood volume and pressure and composition of the urine

New cards
48

What are the special senses:

Vision

•Hearing

•Equilibrium

•Smell

•Taste

New cards
49

What forms from the 1st (mandibular) Pharyngeal Arch?

Bony mandible

Muscles of mastication

Nerves

Blood supply

Cheeks

New cards
50

What develops from the 2nd hyoid arch

Facial muscles (smile)

Hyoid bone

Vessels

New cards
51

When does the face develop

4th to 7th week

New cards
52

What does the ectoderm (outer covering of the pharyngeal arches as well as the inner lining of 1st arch) become?

Epithelial lining of the oral cavity

New cards
53

What will the endoderm (lining of the remaining pharyngeal arches) become?

The lining of the GI tract

New cards
54

What does the 1st pharyngeal groove become?

External auditory canal - EAR

New cards
55

What does the 2nd pharyngeal pouch become

Palatine tonsils

New cards
56

What do the remaining pharyngeal pouches become

3rd pouch- inferior parathyroids and thymus

4th pouch- superior parathyroids

5th pouch- ultimobranchial body(gives rise to cells of the thyroid which produce calcitonin

New cards
57

Define Ankyloses

A fusion of tooth roots ( a fusion of mineralized tissues with out an intervening PDL; usually due to trauma

New cards
58

What is leeway space

The size difference between a primary molar and a permanent molar

New cards
59

What tissue does not support the dentition

Tooth enamel

Cementum, alveolar bone and the PDL support dentition

New cards
60

What occurs when the teeth have reached the functional phase

Occlusal contact of opposing arches as well as occlusal wear

New cards
61

Visible ridges often observed on the cervical third of premolar teeth are referred to as

Perikymata

May be mistaken by RDH as calculus

New cards
62

How thick is enamel at the occlusal or incisal surface

2.5mm

New cards
63

Obliterated tubules that are found in areas of attrition, abrasion, fracture or caries would be a sign of what type of dentin formation?

Sclerotic dentin

New cards
64

where the glandular layer of tome’s located

1st layer of dentin on the root

Just beside the cementum

New cards
65

Extensions of the odontoblast that can extend into the enamel are called

SPINDLES

New cards
66

What year was commercial floss invented

1882

New cards
67

What tooth substance is more elastic than enamel

Dentin

New cards
68

What is the organic component of dentin

Collagen

New cards
69

The cell-free region in dentin is known as what zone

Zone of Weil

New cards
70

The apical foramen is slightly larger in which teeth

Maxillary

New cards
71

An avoid calcification seen in the PDL would be called what

cementicle

New cards
72

Why is cementum insensitive to pain

Cementum has no nerve or blood vessel innervation

New cards
73

How wide is the PDL

0.15-0.38

New cards
74

What is the primary function of the PDL

Supporting the tooth

New cards
75

A mass of cells located in the remnants of the root sheath are called:

Epithelial rests

Rests of malassez

New cards
76

Maintenance of alveolar bone and cementum is reliant on what

Tooth function

Bone will resorb when teeth are no longer in function

New cards
77

In what region does the alveolar crest appear pointed?

•Flat?

Anterior region- pointed

Posterior region-flat

New cards
78

What can cause the PDL to become hylanized

Traumatic repetitive compression

New cards
79

What movement does the lateral muscle provide for the mandible

Protrudes the mandible

Pulls the articulation disk forward

New cards
80

A mature mandibular condyle exhibits what shape

Oval

New cards
81

What membrane provides protection and nutrition to the TMJ

Synovial membrane

New cards
82

where would lining mucosa be found in the oral cavity

Floor of the mouth

Ventral side of the tongue

Buccal mucosa

New cards
83

Where would mastication mucosa be located in the oral cavity

Hard palate

Alveolar ridges

New cards
84

Name the two layers of the lamina propria

Papillary layer

Reticular layer

New cards
85

A thin, non-keratinized area of epithelium located IP between the buccal gingiva and lingual gingiva of each tooth is known as the:

Col

New cards
86

Name the cells associated with inflammation

Leukocytes

Lymphocytes

Mast cells

New cards
87

Which of the tonsils are large in children and have deep crypts?

Palatine tonsils

New cards
88

Which of the salivary secretions is higher in carbohydrate content

Serous or mucous

Mucous

New cards
89

What cells are produced in the germinal centers of the tonsils?

Lymphocytes

New cards
90

Name the functional unit of the salivary gland

Alveolus (acinus)

New cards
91

what type of calculus is often dark in color and tenacious

Subgingival calculus

New cards
92

What are characteristics of subgingival plaque

Anaerobic

Gram-negative

Spirochetes rods filamentous organisms

New cards
93

Where is calculus most often found intraorally

The opening of salivary ducts

Maxillary molars

#3, #14 mandibular anteriors

New cards
94

What cell forms the primary cuticle

Ameloblasts

New cards
95

When the enamel crystals of the tooth breakdown how might this appear clinically?

White or brown spot on totoh

New cards
96

Name the 2 movements of the TMJ

Hinge and gliding

Ginglymoarthroidal joint

New cards
97

List the 3 tonsils that compose Waldyer’s ring

Palatine

Lingual

Pharyngeal adenoid

New cards
98

What is the function of Sharpey’s fibers

Attach the tooth to the alveolar bone; they penetrate both cementum and alveolar bone through the PDL

New cards
99

2 functions of the PDL

Supportive

Nutritive

Sensory

Maintenance

New cards
100

What percentage of Americans have at least one cavity by the age of 17 years old?

78%

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 18 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 12 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 96 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 43979 people
Updated ... ago
4.8 Stars(380)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard65 terms
studied byStudied by 92 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard60 terms
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard165 terms
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard44 terms
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard30 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard48 terms
studied byStudied by 14 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(3)
flashcards Flashcard447 terms
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard249 terms
studied byStudied by 13 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)