Exam 3

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Pasteurization is

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Unit 7, 8, 9, 10 (I-III)

228 Terms

1

Pasteurization is

The use of mild heating to eliminate microbes.

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2

Are the bacteria that do survive the process of pasteurization likely to cause disease?

No, it’s unlikely they cause disease.

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3

Phosphate test will be inactive to determine if

Products have been pasteurized.

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4

Temperature and time for pasteurization

72C for 15 seconds

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5

High Osmotic Pressure (definition)

High concentration of salts and sugars to create a hypertonic environment where water leaves the cell

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6

What leaves the cell and what stays with high osmotic pressure?

Bacteria is eliminated, but yeasts and molds still grow.

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7

Ionizing Radiation

Gamma and X-rays, high energy electron beams (wavelength of ~1 nm)

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8

How does ionizing radiation work?

Kills organisms by reacting with their cellular matter, like DNA, and damaging it

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9

Uses of ionizing radiation

Vegetable, spices, certain meats, some medical equipment, even USPS mail

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10

Non-ionizing Radiation

UV light, 1+ nm

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11

How does non-ionizing radiation work?

Damages DNA of exposed cells by making bonds form between adjacent thymine bases

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12

What does sodium nitrate/nitrite do?

Preserve the pleasing red color of meat by reaction with blood components

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13

What does sodium nitrate/nitrite prevent and form?

It can prevent the germination and growth of any botulism endospores. It can form nitrosamines, a carcinogenic product

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14

Sorbic Acid and Sodium Benzoate

Prevent molds from growing in certain acidic conditions, like with cheese and soft drinks.

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15

Canning is done mainly to

Prevent C. botulinum

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16

Describe 12D treatment

Give a theoretical population of C. botulinum of 10^12, after the canning process, 1 survivor would be left. It's a very reliable process

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17

Vitamin B12 Production

Produced by Pseudomonas sp. and Propionibacterium sp.

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18

Vitamin B2 Production

Fungi via fermentation, Ashbya gossypii

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19

Vitamin C Production

Complicated modification go glucose by Acetobacter sp.

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20

Steroid Transformation

Making a sterol a steroid is chemically complex, but some microbes like Streptomycin make it easy via the addition of a hydroxyl group, +HO.

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21

Steroid Transformation Examples

Cortisol → Cortisone

Estrogens and progesterones (oral birth control)

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22

Milk is

Sterile when in the udder

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23

Enzyme required to make cheese

Rennin - under low pH

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24

What microbes are used to produce lactic acid and lower pH?

S. lactic and S. cremoris

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25

Butter - fat globules is made with … and requires …, …

Leuconstoc sp., S. lactis, and S. cremoris

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26

What does Leuconstoc sp. produce?

Diacetyls (butter flavor)

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27

Yogurt is made with

Lactobacillus and S. thermophilus

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28

Kefir and Kumiss is milk fermented with … and has an alcohol contact between …

Yeast, 1-2%

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29

Sauerkraut, pickles, and olives are made with

Leuconstoc and lactobacillus

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30

Soy sauce is made with

Aspergillus oryzae

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31

Vinegar is made with

Acetobacter or Gluconobacter, made from cider or wine.

Converts ethanol to acetic acid.

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32

Single Celled Proteins are used as a supplement in

Livestock fodder (food)

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33

… Microbe is high in protein which is why it’s used as a supplement in livestock fodder

Torsula sp.

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34

Glutamic acid facts

1 million tons/year

Food condiment

Food allergies

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35

Glutamic acid is produced by

Micrococcus and Corynebacterium glutamicum

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36

Lysine production rate

250,000 tons/year

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37

Lysine is produced by

Corynebacterium glutamicum

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38

Citric acid production rate

1.6 million tons/year

70% used in the food industry; 30% used for industrial purposes

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39

Citric acid is produced by … which converts

Aspergillus niger, molasses to citric acid

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40

Proteases are made with

Aspergillus sp. and Bacillus sp.

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41

Proteases are found in

Detergents, meat tenderizers, leather production, chill-proofing beer

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42

Amylases break down …, made with

Starches, Aspergillus sp. and Bacillus sp.

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43

Lactase breaks down …, made with

Lactose, yeast

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44

Antibiotics produced by fungus Penicillum

Penicillin and griseofulvin

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45

Antibiotics produced by fungus Cephalosporium

Cephalothins

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46

Antibiotics produced by bacteria Bacillus

Bacitracin and polymyxin

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47

Antibiotics produced by bacteria Streptomyces sp.

Streptomycin, tetracycline, amphotericin, chloramphenicol

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48

Rhizobium will mix with

Peat moss to retrain moisture and then seeded with legumes to ensure infection of the plant

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49

Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a microbe that

Eats mosquito larvae and gypsy moths, used in municipal control programs and home gardens

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50

Biomass

Organic matter produced by living organisms, including crops, waste, and trees

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51

Bioconversion

Using microbes to convert biomass into energy

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52

Biofuels

Ethanol from agricultural crops; methane from landfills for electricity

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53

Recombinant DNA (genetic engineering)

Any artificial manipulation of genes within a species or between different species

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54

Restriction enzymes

Enzymes that cut DNA into pieces that are easy to recombine in-vitro

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55

Vector

Transports foreign DNA into a cell. Plasmid or virus that inserts genes into a cell

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56

Clone

Genetically identical cells

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57

Human insulin

E. coli carries human gene that makes this hormone

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58

Human Growth Hormone

Somatotropin (used to be extracted from cadavers)

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59

Hepatitis B Vaccine

Yeast carries viral gene

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60

Gene therapy

Replace a defective or mutated gene

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61

Cystic Fibrosis

Inhalation of a harmless cold virus that carries the healthy gene that the person lacks, virus is a vector.

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62

Agammaglobulinemia

Inability to produce antibodies.

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63

Agammaglobulinemia therapy

Addition of genetically engineered virus to the bone marrow

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64

Bovine Growth Hormone (BGH)

E. coli carries gene

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65

Insertion of nitrogen-fixation genes into plants…

using Rhizobium

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66

CRISPR enzymes come from

Archae and Baceria

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67

CRISPR

Enzymes can destroy DNA mutations using a small RNA molecule to target the mutated DNA and replace it.

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68

Disease

Abnormal state in which the body isn’t capable of carrying on its normal function

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69

Infection

Invasion or colonization of the body by pathogenic microbes

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70

Pathogens

Disease causing microbes

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71

Pathology

Study of disease

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72

Etiology

Cause of disease → Koch’s Postulates

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73

Normal Flora: Commensals

Important in location and concentration

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74

Sporadic

Disease occurs occasionally in a population

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75

Endemic

Disease constantly in a population

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76

Epidemic

Many people in a given area acquire a disease in a short period of time

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77

Pandemic

Worldwide epidemic

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78

Acute

Disease develops rapidly, but lasts a short time, like the flu

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79

Chronic

Disease develops slowly, bodies reaction are less severe and disease process is likely to be continual or recurrent for a long time, like ringworm

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80

Subacute

Disease that is intermediate between acute and chronic

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81

Subacute disease example

Sclerosing panencephalitis

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82

Latent

Causative agent remains inactive for a period of time but then becomes active

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83

Localized

Microbes are limited to an area, boils or abcesses

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84

Generalized or systemic

Microbes or products spread via the blood and lymphatic system, like measles

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85

Focal

Infection starts as local, but then becomes generalized

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86

What do focal infections arise from?

Infections of the teeth, tonsils, and sinuses

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87

Primary Infections, HIV

Infection that causes initial illness

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88

Secondary Infections, Toxoplasmosis

Infection that is caused by an opportunist microbe because the body is weakened

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89

Nosocomial

Hospital Acquired Infections (HAI)

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90

Rate of nosocomial infections has risen 36% over 20 years because of

Microbes in the environment

Compromised host

Chain of transmission

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91

Types of HAIs

Lower RT

Surgical sites

UTIs (insertion of catheter)

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92

Types of HAI causing microbes

E. coli

Staph/Strep

Pseudomonas

C. difficiles

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93

Bacteremia

Bacteria in blood

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94

Septicemia (sepsis)

Pathogens multiplying in blood, blood poisoning

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95

Toxemia

Toxins in blood, like tetanus

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96

Viremia

Viruses in blood, measles

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97

Pyemia

Pus forming microbes in blood

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98

Signs are

Measured, like temperature

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99

Symptoms are

Felt, like muscle-aches

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100

Period of incubation:

Interval between initial infection and appearance of signs/symptoms

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