Introduction to Modern Pathology

studied byStudied by 8 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

Pathology

1 / 104

Tags and Description

GHPC LEC

105 Terms

1

Pathology

Was considered to be religious belief

New cards
2

Pathology

this evolved from Anatomy, Medicine, and Surgery

New cards
3

Hippocrates

Father of Medicine

New cards
4

Hippocrates

He studied patient's symptoms and described methods of diagnosis (physical exam, and/or observing of signs and symptoms supported by lab results)

New cards
5

Types of Medical Diagnosis

Provisional

Histopathological

Final

New cards
6

Provisional diagnosis

type of diagnosis that includes physical examination and clinical findings

New cards
7

Histopathological diagnosis

type of diagnosis that requires careful examination of tissue done by an expert pathologist

New cards
8

Clinicians

provisional diagnosis is done by _________?

New cards
9

final diagnosis

type of diagnosis that is supported by lab results, physical examination, etc. that is done prior

New cards
10

pathologists

persons who specialized in making diagnosis in medical cases

New cards
11

William Osler

who differentiate the practice of medicine and pathology

New cards
12

William Osler

who created a foundation in the discipline of internal medicine

New cards
13

Cornelius Celsus

he founded the 4 cardinal signs of inflammation

New cards
14

Cornelius Celsus

he introduced the detailed analysis of surgical techniques

New cards
15

Rubor / Tumor / Calor / Dolor

what are the Four cardinal signs of Inflammation?

New cards
16

Functio laesa

this refers to the loss of function (of the body)

New cards
17

Anton van Leeuwenhoek

he is the Father of Microscopy

New cards
18

Anton van Leeuwenhoek

he discovered the histological stain (safranin red)

New cards
19

Anton van Leeuwenhoek

he made an important development in the cell theory wherein he described the diversity of cells under the microscope

New cards
20

Marcello Malpighi

he is the father of histology

New cards
21

Marcello Malpighi

he is the father of physiology & embryology

New cards
22

Marcello Malpighi

who studies capillaries that proved to be fundamental to our understanding in the vascular system and spinal cord

New cards
23

Marcello Malpighi

who is the founder of microscopical anatomy

New cards
24

Giovanni Morgagni

who introduced the clinicopathological correlation (CPC)

New cards
25

Giovanni Morgagni

who studied the cause of lesions, symptoms and outcome of disease?

New cards
26

Clinicopathologic correlation (CPC)

this referes to the type of correlation that is a combination of signs & symptoms directly observable upon consultation with supporting results of lab exams

New cards
27

Percival Pott

who referred that the chimney soot is carcinogenic

New cards
28

John Hunter

pathologic anatomy

New cards
29

Richard Bright

Glomerulonephritis (Bright's disease)

New cards
30

Thomas Addison

addison’s disease (adrenal insufficiency)

New cards
31

hypoadrenalism / addison’s disease

a condition that has low levels of cortisol that can lead to weakness, fatigue

New cards
32

Thomas hodgkin

hodgkin’s disease

New cards
33

liver & spleen enlargement

what organs are affected by the hodgkin’s disease?

New cards
34

Carl von Rokitansky

he introduced autopsy

New cards
35

Paul Ehrlich

he is the father of chemotherapy

New cards
36

Paul Ehrlich

who discovered the first effective treatment for syphilis

New cards
37

Rober Koch

he stained bacilli with methylene blue

New cards
38

Koch’s bacillus

other term for methylene blue to stain mycobacterium tuberculosis

New cards
39

mycobacterium tuberculosis

causative agent for tuberculosis

New cards
40

Christian Gram

who is the inventor of the Gram staining technique

New cards
41

May-Grunwald-Giemsa Stain

stain used to study cells in respect for their cellular & nuclear size

New cards
42

Romanowsky-Giemsa Stain

stain commonly used in hematology and cytopathology

New cards
43

Robert Feulgen

who is the person reponsible for the foundation of cytochemistry & histochemistry

New cards
44

Rudolf Virchow

Etiology of embolism

New cards
45

Julius Cohnheim

Concept of frozen section

New cards
46

Ruska & Lorries

introduced electron microscope

New cards
47

George Papanicolaou

who is the father of exfoliative cytology

New cards
48

Modern pathology

this refers to the study of diseases at Molecular Level will aid in the diagnosis & treatment of

1.       Genetic disorders

2.       Immunology

3.       Cancer

New cards
49

James Watson & Francis Crick

stated that their model of DNA consists of two helical strands twisted around each other in a double helix

New cards
50

alternating sugar & phosphate groups

what is the DNA structure made up of?

New cards
51

PURINES (guanine, adenine)

PYRIMIDINES (cytosine, thymine)

what are the bases found in the phosphate groups of the DNA?

New cards
52

Barbara McClintock

DNA Flexibility & Dynamism

New cards
53

Tijo & Levan

who identified the correct number of human chromosomes?

New cards
54

Kary Mullis

introduced PCR xeroxing or copying of DNA

New cards
55

p53

this is an example of tumor suppressor genes

New cards
56

tumor suppressor genes

these are normal genes that slow down cell division commanding the cells to die at a right time "apoptosis"

New cards
57

chromosome 17

where is the p53 gene located?

New cards
58

1.       Cancer colon

2.       Brain cancer

3.       Cancer lung

4.       Cancer liver

Upon mutation of the p53 gene, the loss of function mutation will lead to what cancers?

New cards
59

Aflatoxin B & lifestyle of smoking

what are the carcinogens that causes mutation in the p53 gene?

New cards
60

aflatoxin B

is a potent hepatocarcinogen common in China & Africa

New cards
61

1969

year when in situ hybridization was introduced

New cards
62

1972

year when the recombinant DNA technique was introduced

New cards
63

1996

year when the Dolly experiment was conducted

New cards
64

1998

year when the era of stem cell research evolved/ started

New cards
65

2003

year when the human genome project was introduced

New cards
66

in situ hybridization

this is a laboratory technique used to localize a sequence of DNA or RNA in a biological sample that uses a labelled probe that cleaves target DNA

New cards
67

Recombinant DNA technique

this technique uses enzymes to cut and paste bits of DNA

New cards
68

Ian Wilmut

who explored the possibility of cloning a lamb from an adult sheep

New cards
69

adult somatic cell

what cell was used in mammalian cloning?

New cards
70

1. Embryonic stem cells

2. Adult stem cells

what sources were used to create treatment for alzheimer’s disease and aid insulin production

New cards
71

Human Genome Project (HGP)

this research aimed to decipher the chemical makeup of the entire human genetic code

New cards
72

Human Genome Project (HGP)

this project was used for the treatment & prevention of incurable diseases

New cards
73

patient

refers to the person affected by disease

New cards
74

lesions

refers to the changes int tissues & cells produced by a disease

New cards
75

vesicles & pustules

these are lesions that contain fluids

New cards
76

nodules

these are lesions that are solid

New cards
77

Patches & Macules

these are lesions that are flat

New cards
78

causal factors

"why of disease" etiology

New cards
79

pathogenesis

“how of disease”

New cards
80

diagnosis

“what is wrong”

New cards
81

prognosis

"what is going to happen"

New cards
82

Good prognosis

Early diagnosis and treatment

New cards
83

Poor Prognosis

Delay of diagnosis and treatment

New cards
84

treatment

“what can be done”

New cards
85

prevention

“what should be done to avoid complications and spread”

New cards
86

General

Systemic

Gross & Microscopic

Anatomic

Clinical

divisions of pathology

New cards
87

General pathology

division of pathology that studies the mechanism behind cell and tissue injuries in general

New cards
88

systemic pathology

division of pathology that studies the disease of a specific organ or body system

New cards
89

surgical

forensic pathology & autopsy

cythopathology

3 main subdivisions of anatomic pathology

New cards
90

surgical pathology

a subdivision of anatomic pathology that study tissues removed from the living body

New cards
91

forensic pathology & autopsiy

a subdivision of anatomic pathology that covers removed postmortem (study) and medicolegal

New cards
92

cytopathology

a subdivision of anatomic pathology that studies exfoliated cells in smear

New cards
93

Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology

meaning of FNAC

New cards
94

autopsy

refers to getting tissue samples from the dead to know the cause of death

New cards
95

biopsy

refers to getting a portion of tissue from a living person for analysis and diagnsos

New cards
96

Geographic Pathology

refers to the study of the difference in distribution and type of disease

New cards
97

Clinician

this person has direct contact with the patient for treatment

New cards
98

Pathologist

this person performs laboratory procedures to help diagnose diseases

New cards
99
  1. Request form

  2. tissue accession

  3. gross examination

  4. special step (calcified tissue) decalcification

  5. 18-hour overnight processing

Procedure in the Histopathology Section

New cards
100

fixed tissue accession

tissues are submerged to 10% formalin to preserve and maintain specimen integrity. For routine processing.

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 44 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 66 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 15 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 32 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 19 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard92 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard82 terms
studied byStudied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard51 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard63 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard56 terms
studied byStudied by 19 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard48 terms
studied byStudied by 110 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(3)
flashcards Flashcard25 terms
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard51 terms
studied byStudied by 12 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)