APES Lap 4

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atmosphere

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125 Terms

1

atmosphere

thin layer of gases that surrounds earth

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2

stratosphere

absorbs radiation

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3

mesosphere

burns up meteors

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4

troposphere

moderates climate

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5

troposphere

transports and recycles water and nutrients

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6

78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 1% argon

composition of atmosphere

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7

water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane

variable amounts of ________ in atmosphere

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8

thermosphere

atmosphere's top layer

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9

thermosphere

where northern lights happen

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10

troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, exosphere

layers of atmosphere

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11

troposphere

the lowest atmospheric layer; from 4 to 11 miles high

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12

troposphere

air for breathing

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13

troposphere

temperature declines with altitude

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14

statosphere

contains ozone layer

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15

stratosphere

temperature increases with altitude

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16

mesosphere

temperature decreases with altitude

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17

mesosphere

extremely low air pressure

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18

thermosphere

ionic radiation, very hot, very thin air

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19

tropopause

limits mixing between troposphere and the layer above it

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20

atmospheric pressure

measures the force per unit area produced by a column of air

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21

decreases

atmospheric pressure _______ with altitude

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22

relative humidity

the ratio of water vapor a given volume of air contains to the amount it could contain at a given temperature

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23

location, time

temperature varies with ________ and ________

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24

ozone, burning fossil fuels

____ found in the troposphere is from _________

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25

troposphere

region most affected by the greenhouse gas effect

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26

troposphere

region that contains the majority of molecules in the atmosphere

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27

heats air, moves air, creates seasons, influences weather and climate

energy from the sun _____, ______, ______, _________

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28

solar radiation

________ is highest near the equator

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29

toward, half

each hemisphere tilts ______ the sun for ___ the year

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30

convective circulation

less dense, warmer air rises and creates vertical currents

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31

warmer, moister

air near Earth's surface is ________ and _______ than air at higher altitudes

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32

rising, expands, cools

_______ air _____ and _____

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33

weather

specifies atmospheric conditions over short time periods and within a small geographic areas

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34

climate

describes patterns of atmospheric conditions across large geographic regions over long periods of time

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35

front

the boundary between air masses that differ in temperature, moisture, and density

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36

warm front

the boundary where warm moist air replaces colder, drier air

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37

cold front

the boundary where colder, drier air displaces warmer, moister air

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38

high-pressure system

air that moves away from a center of high pressure as it descends

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39

fair weather

high-pressure systems bring _____

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40

low-pressure system

air moves toward the low atmospheric pressure at the center of the system and spirals upward

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41

clouds and precipitation

low=pressure system brings _________

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42

hadley cells

near the equator, surface air warms, rises, and expands

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43

moisture, heavy rainfall

hadley cells release ______ and ______ near the equator

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44

ferrel and polar cells

life air

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45

coriolis effect

the north-south air currents of the convective cells appear to deflected from a straight path

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46

curving global wind patterns

the coriolis effect results in _________

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47

doldrums

near the equator, few winds

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48

trade winds

between the equator and 30 degrees latitude, blow from east to west

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49

westerlies

from 30 to 60 degrees latitude, originate from the west and blow east

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50

lichen, sulfur

____ is an indicator species for bad because it is sensitive to ____

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51

hazardous atmosphere

-contains a toxic chemical above the PEL

  • has less than 19.5% oxygen

  • contains a combustible gas within its explosive limit

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52

air pollution

material added to the atmosphere that can affect climate and harm organisms, including humans

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53

natural or anthroprogenic

______ or _____ air pollution release directly into the air

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54

dust storms, volcanoes, fires

natural sources of air pollution

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55

volcanism

contributes to the cooling of earth's atmosphere

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56

primary pollutants

directly harmful and can react to form harmful substances

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57

secondary pollutants

form when primary pollutants interact or react with constituents or components of the atmosphere

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58

NO

nitrogen oxide

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59

NO2

nitrogen dioxide

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60

NO3

nitrate

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61

NO2

nitrite

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62

HNO3

nitric acid

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63

SO4

sulfate

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64

H2SO4

sulfuric acid

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65

H2CO3

carbonic acid

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66

HNO2

nitrous acid

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67

carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, particulate matter

primary pollutants

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68

nitric acid, PANs, ozone, sulfuric acid

secondary pollutants

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69

air pollutants

gases and particulate material added to the atmosphere

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70

sunlight, water, oxygen

secondary pollutants undergo a transformation in the presence of ______, ________, _______

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71

carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, suspended particulates, volatile organic compounds, ozone

major pollutants

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72

CO, SO2, NOx, VOCs, PM, lead

six criteria pollutants

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73

CO2

not regulated ad a pollutant under the U.S. Clean Air Act

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74

incomplete combustion

CO is a highly toxic gas that forms during the _______ of carbon-containing materials

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75

60,000

SPM is responsible for about ______ premature deaths a year in the US

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76

dust storms

hundreds of millions of tons of dust are blown westward across the Atlantic Ocean by trade winds every year

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77

unsustainable farming and grazing, erosion, desertification

dust storms come from

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78

aerosols

reflect sunlight back into space and cool the atmosphere and surface

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79

volatile organic compounds

emitted as gases from liquids or solids

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80

smog

unhealthy mixtures of air pollutants over urban areas

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81

industrial smog

industries burn coal or oil; fossil-fuel combustion

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82

cool hilly areas

where does industrial smog occur

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83

SOx

primary pollutants of industrial smog

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84

SO3, H2SO4, PM

secondary pollutants of industrial smog

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85

fossil fuel burning

anthropogenic source of industrial smog

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86

Beijing, China

areas with industrial smog problems

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87

photochemical smog

morning traffic exhaust releases

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88

NOx, VOCs

primary pollutants of photochemical smog

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89

ozone, PANs

secondary pollutants of photochemical smog

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90

Los Angeles, California

problem location of photochemical smog

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91

hot sunny and windless days

when would photochemical smog happen

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92

Mexico City

another place where photochemical smog happens

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93

precipitation, wind, sea salt spray, chemical reaction

reduction in air pollution

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94

buildings block wind, hills and mountains, urban heat island, temperature inversions, migrating pollution, VOCs

increases air pollution

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95

thermal inversion

a layer of cool air occurs beneath a layer of warmer air

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96

inversion layer

the band of air in which temperature rises with altitude

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97

urban heat island

cities often hotter than surrounding countryside

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98

buildings block wind, heating buildings, little surface water, stone re-emits solar energy

causes of urban heat island

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99

Montreal Protocol

restricted CFC production globally

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100

hot, dry, clear, no wind

ozone action days

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