Unit 2 AP gov vocab

studied byStudied by 5 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

16th Amendment

1 / 113

114 Terms

1

16th Amendment

passed in 1913, permits Congress to levy an income tax.

New cards
2

17th Amendment

direct election of senators

New cards
3

22nd Amendment

passed in 1951, limits presidents to two terms.

New cards
4

25th Amendment

passed in 1967, permits the vice president to become acting president in the event that the president is temporarily disabled.

New cards
5

Administrative discretion:

authority of administrative actors (bureaucrats) to select among various responses to a given problem, especially when rules do not fit or more than one rule applies.

New cards
6

Amicus Curiae Brief

A "friend of the court" brief filed by an interest group or interested party to influence a Supreme Court decision.

New cards
7

Appellate Jurisdiction

The authority of a court to hear an appeal from a lower court.

New cards
8

Appropriations bill

bill passed annually to fund an authorized program.

New cards
9

Attorney General

Head of the Department of Justice - cabinet head appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate to enforce federal laws of the United States (criminal, civil rights, etc.).

New cards
10

Authorization bill

an act of Congress that establishes a discretionary government program or an entitlement, or that continues or changes such programs.

New cards
11

Bicameral legislature

a legislature that is divided into two chambers.

New cards
12

Bill

a proposed law, drafted in precise, legal language.

New cards
13

Budget

a policy document that allocates burdens (taxes) and benefits (expenditures).

New cards
14

Budget resolution

a bill setting limits on expenditures based on revenue projections, agreed to by both houses of Congress in April each year.

New cards
15

Bully Pulpit

The president's use of his prestige and visibility to guide or enthuse the American public.

New cards
16

Bureaucracy

A large, complex organization of appointed officials who implement policies of Executive and Legislative branches.

New cards
17

Bureaucrat

appointed government officials who implement policies of Executive and Legislative branches.

New cards
18

Cabinet

the group of presidential advisors who head the executive departments.

New cards
19

Casework

helping constituents as individuals cut through bureaucratic red tape to receive their rightful benefits.

New cards
20

Caucus

a meeting to determine which candidate delegates from a state party will support.

New cards
21

Civil Service

promotes hiring on the basis of merit and establishes a nonpartisan government service.

New cards
22

Class Action Lawsuits

a technique used by interest groups which allows groups of people with similar complaints to combine their grievances into a single suit.

New cards
23

Closed rule

Under a Closed Rule no amendments may be offered other than amendments recommended by the committee reporting the bill. So no amendments may be offered in debate on the floor.

New cards
24

Cloture

A senate motion to end a filibuster requiring 3/5ths vote.

New cards
25

Committee chairs

the most important influences on the congressional agenda; they schedule hearings, hire staff, appoint subcommittees, and manage committee bills.

New cards
26

Conference Committees

Temporary Committees that are formed to resolve differences in the House and Senate version of a bill. Involves compromises.

New cards
27

Congressional Budget Office (CBO)

research agency of Congress, responsible to it for providing analyses of budget proposals, revenue forecasts, and related information.

New cards
28

Continuing resolutions

laws that allow agencies to spend at the previous year's level.

New cards
29

Courts of Appeal

courts which have the power to review all final decisions of district courts, except in instances requiring direct review by the Supreme Court.

New cards
30

Deficit

occurs when government spends more money than it receives in taxes in the fiscal year.

New cards
31

Delegate role of Representation

When members of Congress cast their votes based on the wishes of their constituents.

New cards
32

Deregulation

the withdrawal of the use of governmental authority to control or change some practice in the private sector.

New cards
33

Discharge Petition

a device by which any member of the House, after a committee has had the bill for thirty days, may petition to have it brought to the floor - it requires 218 votes (a majority of the 435 House members) to get the bill out of committee by a discharge petition. It defeats the actions of a committee chair who tries to kill a bill by not placing on the agenda.

New cards
34

District courts

the entry point for most federal litigation. This is the trial court where there are juries, witnesses, and where evidence is introduced.

New cards
35

Divided Government

A government in which one party controls the presidency while another party controls one or both houses of Congress, as opposed to a United Government, when one party controls the White House and both houses of Congress.

New cards
36

Ex Post Facto law

A law applied to an act committed before the law was enacted.

New cards
37

Exclusionary Rule

Supreme Court guideline that prohibits evidence obtained by illegal searches or seizures from being admitted in court.

New cards
38

Executive Agreement

A pact and therefore not part of US law, that does not have to be approved, between the president and the head of a foreign state.

New cards
39

Executive Order

A directive, order or regulation issued by the President but have the Constitutional force of law. (Disadvantage of this is that the next president can revoke it).

New cards
40

Executive Privilege

The President's power to refuse to disclose confidential information. In US vs Nixon it was ruled that this power is not guaranteed (it must really be a matter of national security to apply).

New cards
41

Expenditures

money spent by the government in any one year.

New cards
42

Express Powers

Powers specifically granted to the federal government by the Constitution.

New cards
43

Federal debt

all of the money borrowed by the government over the years that is still outstanding.

New cards
44

Federal Reserve System

created by Congress in 1913 to regulate the lending practices of banks and thus the money supply.

New cards
45

Filibuster

A way of delaying or preventing action on a bill by using long speeches and unlimited debate to "talk a bill to death."

New cards
46

Franking Privilege

The right of members of Congress to mail newsletters to their constituents at the government's expense.

New cards
47

Governmental corporations

provide services that could be handled by the private sector and generally charge cheaper rates than a private sector producer.

New cards
48

Gridlock

The inability of the government to act because rival parties control different parts of the government.

New cards
49

Hatch Act

passed in 1940, prohibits government workers from active participation in partisan politics.

New cards
50

House Rules Committee

a committee unique to the House, which is appointed by the Speaker of the House, reviews most bills coming from a House committee for a floor vote, and which gives each bill a rule, places it on the calendar, limits debate time and determine its amendments.

New cards
51

House Ways and Means Committee

Committee that is responsible for originating all revenue bills (tax bills).

New cards
52

Impeachment

the political equivalent of an indictment for removing a discredited president.

New cards
53

Income tax

the portion of money individuals are required to pay to the government from the money they earned.

New cards
54

Incrementalism

the best predictor of this year's budget is last year's budget plus a little bit more.

New cards
55

Incumbent

An officeholder who is seeking reelection. Usually this is the most important factor in determining the outcome of the election.

New cards
56

Independent executive agencies

executive agencies that are not cabinet departments, not regulatory commissions, and not government corporations (i.e. CIA, EPA, FEC, FEMA, Rederal Reserve Board, FTC, NSA, Peace Corps, SEC, SSA, US Postal Service)

New cards
57

Independent regulatory agency

Independent agencies that have the responsibility for a sector of the economy to protect the public interest. (i.e. EEOC, FCC, FDIC, FEC, Federal Reserve, FTC, OSHA, SEC).

New cards
58

Iron Triangles

Alliances among administrative agencies, interest groups, and congressional committees where each member provides key services, information, or policy for the others.

New cards
59

Joint committees

special committees composed of members from each chamber (Senate and House).

New cards
60

Judicial Activism

Philosophy that judges must make bold decisions to correct injustices when other branches of government or the states refuse to do so.

New cards
61

Judicial implementation

how and whether court decisions are translated into actual policy (i.e. the Court's decision in Brown v. Bd. Of Ed. Took years to implement due to brush back by state governors and others refusing to implement it)

New cards
62

Judicial Restraint

Philosophy that judges should use precedents and the framer's original intent to decide cases, and leave policy-making to the legislative branch.

New cards
63

Judicial Review

the courts have the power to decide whether the actions of the legislative and executive branches of state and national governments are in accordance with the Constitution.

New cards
64

Justiciable disputes

cases that can be settled by legal methods.

New cards
65

Lame-Duck Period

The period of time in which the President's term is about to come to an end and they have less influence.

New cards
66

Legislative oversight

the process of monitoring the bureaucracy and its administration of policy.

New cards
67

Legislative veto

a clause which allows Congress to override the action of the executive.

New cards
68

Line-Item Veto

An executive's power (the president or a governor) to veto specific dollar amounts or line items from major congressional spending bills. This power was struck down as an unconstitutional expansion of the President's power in the federal gov't, but many governor's have this power in state gov't.

New cards
69

Logrolling

Tactic of mutual aid and vote trading among legislators.

New cards
70

Majority leader

The Speaker's principal partisan ally who is responsible for soliciting support for the party's position on legislation.

New cards
71

Marbury v. Madison

1803 Supreme Court case that established the concept of judicial review.

New cards
72

Merit system

Government workers hired on the basis of qualifications, using entrance exams and promotion ratings for hiring workers, as opposed to the "patronage" or "spoils system", where government employees/officials are hired on the basis of a reward for who they know.

New cards
73

Minority leader

is the minority party's counterpart to the majority party's leadership.

New cards
74

National Security Council (NSC):

a committee that links the president's key foreign and military advisors.

New cards
75

Nuclear option

A parliamentary procedure that allows the U.S. Senate to override a rule or precedent by a simple majority of 51 votes, instead of by a supermajority of 60 votes. Allows the Senate to decide any issue by majority vote, even though the rules of the Senate specify that ending a filibuster requires the consent of 60 senators (out of 100) for legislation, 67 for amending a Senate rule. In November 2013, Senate Democrats used the nuclear option to eliminate filibusters on executive branch nominations and federal judicial appointments other than those to the Supreme Court, due to frustration with Republicans holding up President Obama's nominees from being confirmed. Before November 2013, Senate rules required a three-fifths vote (usually 60 votes) to end debate on a bill, nomination or other proposal. After Nov. 2013, a filibuster on a nominee can be ended by a simple majority of senators. This backfired on democrats because it would later help Republicans in 2016 affirm Trump nominees.

New cards
76

Office of Management and Budget (OMB)

Office responsible for preparing the budget that the president submits to Congress.

New cards
77

Office of Personnel Management (OPM)

responsible for hiring for most agencies.

New cards
78

Original intent

the theory that judges should determine the intent of the framers and decide in line with their intent.

New cards
79

Original jurisdiction

given to a court where a case is first heard.

New cards
80

Oversight

Congressional review of the activities of an executive agency, department or office.

New cards
81

Pendleton Civil Service Act

passed in 1883, it created the federal Civil Service. It carries out the "merit system" of government hiring rather than the patronage /spoils system.

New cards
82

Pocket veto

this occurs when Congress adjourns within 10 days after submitting a bill and the president takes no action to sign it or veto it.

New cards
83

Policy implementation

Policy implementation: the stage of policymaking between the establishment of a policy and the results of the policy for individuals.

New cards
84

Political Questions

conflicts between the president and Congress.

New cards
85

Pork barrel

list of federal projects, grants, and contracts available to cities, businesses, colleges, and institutions.

New cards
86

Precedent

the way similar cases have been handled in the past is used as a guide to current decisions. Enables the system of "stari decisis" (let the decision stand).

New cards
87

Presidential coattails

where voters cast their ballots for congressional candidates of the president's party because those candidates support the president.

New cards
88

Regulation

the use of governmental authority to control or change some practice in the private sector.

New cards
89

Revenues

money received by the government in any given year.

New cards
90

Rule of Four

The Supreme Court will hear a case if four justices agree to do so.

New cards
91

Select committees

appointed for a specific purpose.

New cards
92

Senate Finance Committee

responsible for writing the tax code.

New cards
93

Senatorial Courtesy

An unwritten tradition whereby the Senate will not confirm nominations for lower court positions that are opposed by a senator of the president's own party from the state in which the nominee is to serve.

New cards
94

Seniority system

Unwritten rule in both houses reserving the committee chairs to members of the committee with the longest records of continuous service (Newt Gingrich did away with this system in the house with Republicans in the 1990's)

New cards
95

Social Security Act of 1935

passed to provide a minimal level of sustenance to older Americans. A mandatory retirement system. Today in danger of collapse because Baby Boomers are retiring and living longer than system was set up to provide for.

New cards
96

Solicitor General

the solicitor general is responsible for handling all appeals on behalf of the US government to the Supreme Court.

New cards
97

Speaker of the House

is mandated by the Constitution, is next in line after the vice president to succeed a president who is unable to fulfill his/her term and who presides over the House.

New cards
98

Spoils System

Government workers hired on the basis of a reward for who they know, as opposed to the "merit system", where they are hired on the basis of qualifications, using entrance exams and promotion ratings for hiring workers. Spoils system also known as "patronage".

New cards
99

Standard operating procedures

detailed rules written to cover as many particular situations as officials can anticipate to help bureaucrats implement policies uniformly.

New cards
100

Standing Committees

Permanent subject-matter congressional committees that handle legislation and oversee the bureaucracy.

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 19 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 38 people
Updated ... ago
4.5 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 13 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 59 people
Updated ... ago
4.7 Stars(3)
note Note
studied byStudied by 61 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard30 terms
studied byStudied by 36 people
Updated ... ago
4.5 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard23 terms
studied byStudied by 48 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard59 terms
studied byStudied by 97 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard73 terms
studied byStudied by 19 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard20 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard37 terms
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard26 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard501 terms
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)