Lifespan Chapters 1-4

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What is Nature vs. Nurture?

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What is Nature vs. Nurture?

interaction of biological predispositions and environmental influences; genetic influence vs. experience & environmental influence

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What is Heredity?

the transmission of genetic characteristics from parents to children (OPP social environment)

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What is Continuity?

continuous change

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What is Discontinuity?

abrupt changes

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What is Universal Development?

normative developments that all individuals display

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What is Context-specific Development?

developmental outcomes that vary from person to person

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Define: There are interindividual differences in intraindividual change

Differences between people (changes & memory) and how individuals change within themselves over time; study the variability among individuals and the inter individual differences that occur through a lifespan and don’t focus on the average rate of change

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What is Interindividual?

between individuals

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What is Intraindividual?

within people

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What is a Cohort?

history graded influences on development, biological and environmental influences associated with a particular historical moment; people are products of the social times in which they live

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What is a Theory?

an organized set of ideas that is designed to explain development

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What are the perspectives?

psychodynamic, behavioral, cognitive, contextual, humanistic, evolutionary, life-span

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What is the purpose of theories?

ground and guide research

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What is the Psychodynamic theory?

series of conflicts throughout the lifespan and how they solve them through the lifespan

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What theories did Freud & Erikson study?

Psychosocial & Psychoanalytic Theory

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What is the Behavioral theory?

all behaviors are learned through interaction with the environment; social learning influences a persons behavior; focuses on causes of behavior

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Who developed the Behaviorism theory?

Watson & Skinner

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Who developed the Social Learning Theory?


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What is the Cognitive Developmental Theory?

changes in the cognitive process and abilities through four different stages of learning

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What is the Cognitive Neuroscience Approach?

discovers the biological foundations of the human mind; internal aspects of an individual are more important than external factors

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What is the Information Processing Theory?

humans actively process the information they receive from their senses (take in, use, and store information)

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What is the Humanistic Perspective?

aspects of development that are unique to humans; universal vs. context-specific

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What is Self-Actualization?

full realization of human potential

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What is the Contextual Perspective?

development is affected by their internal and external environments

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What did Brofenbrenner study?

Nurture; the bioecological approach

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What is the Bioecological Approach?

development is inseparable from environmental context; interconnected systems (microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem); the relationships children have with parents and caregivers impacts their development & work, school, and community settings, broader social cultural, and policy conditions

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What did Vygotsky study?

sociocultural theory, child in context, social interactions, differences, emphasis on cultural influences

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What is the Evolutionary Perspective?

personality and individual differences have evolved to provide adaptive advantage for survival and reproduction

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Who studied the Evolutionary Perspective?

Charles Darwin & Konrad Lorenz

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What is the Lifespan Perspective?

development is lifelong across biological, sociocultural and psychological factors

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What is Operant Conditioning?

consequences of a behavior determine whether it is repeated; positive & negative reinforcement

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What is the Social Learning Theory?

experience drives development; learning occurs by observing and imitating the behavior of others

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What is Self-Efficacy?

one’s beliefs about one’s abilities and talents

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What is a Multidirectionality?

growth and decline

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What is Plasticity?

skills can be learned or improved

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What is Historical Context?

time and culture

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What is a Microsystem?

where children spend the most time (family, school, classrooms, friends)

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What is a Mesosystem?

interaction between different microsystems (homework with parents, emails to teachers, parent teacher conferences)

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What is a Exo-system?

something that doesn’t directly reflect the individual (neighborhood, parents work environment)

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What is a Macrosystem?

broad, all-encompassing influences that impact the child and all the systems that surround the child

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What is the Scientific Method?

process of posing and answering questions using careful, controlled techniques that includes systematic, orderly observation and the collection of data

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What are the steps of the Scientific Method?

identify questions of interest, formulate an explanation (hypothesis), carry out research to test hypothesis

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What is Correlational Research?

identify whether an association or relationship between two factors exists

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What is Positive Correlation?

same direction, more of one more of the other

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What is Negative Correlation?

opposite directions, one up, one down

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What is No Assocation?

change in one variable, no change in the other

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What is Experimental Research?

purpose is to discover causal relationships between factors; introduce changes in a controlled environment in order to asses consequences

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What are the types of Correlational Research?

naturalistic observation, case studies, survey research

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What are Longitudinal Studies?

observations of people of one cohort repeatedly over time

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What are Cross-Sectional Studies?

groups of children who differ in age studied at the same point in time

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What are Genes?

basic units of genetic information; determines the nature and and functions of every cell in the body; made up of DNA

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What is a Genotype?

an organism’s genetic inheritance (genetic potential); unique for each organism

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What is a Phenotype?

observable characteristics of a person (appearance, personality, intelligence); influenced (connected) by genome (genotype) interactions with multiple aspects of the environment.

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What is a Dominant Traint?

trait expressed when two competing traits are present

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What is a Recessive Trait?

trait within an organism that is present, but is not expressed

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What is Homozygous Condition?

child received both dominant and recessive traits

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What is Heterozygous Condition?

child received two different forms of a gene for a given trait; dominant trait will be expressed

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What is Behavioral Genetics?

Studies the inheritance of behavior and psychological traits

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What is Polygenetic Inheritance?

When many genes affect the phenotype of a physical, psychological, or behavior trait

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What is Dizygotic or Fraternal?

twins from two different eggs fertilized by two different sperm; no more genetically similar than other siblings

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What is Monozygotic or Identical?

twins from the union of one egg and one sperm that splits in two soon after conception; are genetically identical

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What is Epigenetics?

alteration of gene expression

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What is Teratogen?

an agent that causes abnormal prenatal development

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What is Classical Conditioning?

learning that happens unconsciously; automatic conditioned response is paired with a specific stimulus creating a behavior

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What is Habituation?

decrease in the response to a stimulus that occurs after repeated presentations of the same stimulus

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What is Synaptic Pruning?

neurons get eliminated when they are not used

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What is the Pincer Grasp?

with thumb and finger

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What is the Visual Cliff Experiment?

examines the depth perception of infants; Gibson & Walker (1960); 2 mo. olds show interest not fear compared to 7 mo. olds; understanding od depth perception due to increasing mobility of infant; motor development and sensory input strongly linked

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What are Schemes?

organized patterns of functioning that adapt and change with mental functioning

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What is Assimilation?

the process in which people understand an experience in terms of their current stage of cognitive development and thinking; transform NEW information to fit current thinking or existing scheme

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What is Accommodation?

changes in existing ways of thinking that occur in response to encounters with new stimuli or events; modify current concept of create new concept

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What is Object Permenence?

understanding that objects exist independently of oneself'; developed around 8 months old

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What are the limitations of Piaget’s Model?

Infants and young children are more competent than He recognized; doesn’t explain how changes occurs; doesn’t acknowledge variability in children’s behaviors; He underestimates the social world

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What is the Core Knowledge Hypothesis?

infants are born with rudimentary knowledge of the world, which is elaborated based on experiences

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What is Mental Hardware?

mental and neural structures that are innate and allow the mind to operate

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What is Mental Software?

mental programs that are the basis for performing particular tasks; complexity increases with age

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What is Memory?

mental capacity to encode, store, and retrieve information; indication that learning has persisted over time

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What is Infantile Amnesia?

profound memory loss for events in first 1-2 years; early memories tend to be big events

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What is Motherese/ Infant-directed Speech?

slow with exaggerated changes in pitch and volume, exaggerated facial gestures; cross-cultural; infants prefer to listen to this type of speech b/c helps segment words

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What are Phonemes?

unique sounds used to create words

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What is a Universal Listener?

born able to distinguish between world’s languages

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What is a Specialized Listener?

by 10-12 months focus onwhat they hear in their environment

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What do Emotions include?

feelings, physiological reactions, cognitions (thoughts), goals

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What are Basic Emotions?

universal emotions such as joy, anger, fear, interest, disgust, distress, sadness and surprise

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What is the last basic emotion to emerge?

at 6-7 months of age Fear emerges

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What is Stranger Anxiety?

fretful reaction to being approached by unfamiliar person; result of improved cognitive skills; memory develops; ability. to anticipate and predict events increased

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What is Separation Anxiety?

fretful reaction when separated from persons to whom they are attached; universal across cultures; begins about 7-8 months; pearks around 14 months

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What are Complex Emotions?

self-conscious emotions that emerge in the 2nd and 3rd years, and depend in part on cognitive development

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What are Secondary Emotions?

emotion fueled by other emotions; embarassment, shame, guilt, envy, pride

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What is Social Referencing?

the use of other’s emotional expressions to gain information about an ambiguous situation (7-10 mo- look to parents; 12 months- reference strangers)

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What is Attachment?

an enduring socio emotional relationship; based on need for safety and security; provides foundation for healthy intimiate relationships

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What does Attachment Security promote?

prosocial behavior, empathy, self-esteem, positive emotional well-being

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What is Secure Attachment Type?

may be upset/happy upon return; will seek comfort from their parent or caregiver

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What is Avoidant Attachment Type?

not upset/ignored upon return; the child develop independence & self reliance when their parents/caretaker doesn’t show care

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What is Resistant/Ambivalent Attachment Type?

become attached to the caregiver; upset/upset upon return or passively reject the parent by refusing comfort

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What is Disorganized-Disoriented Attachment Type?

mix of behaviors (avoidance or resistance); lack of clear attachment behavior; confused or apprehensive in presence of caregiver

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What is Motor Development?

growth in the ability of children to use their bodies and physical skills

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What is Fine Motor Development?

the ability to make movements using the small muscles in our hands and wrists

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What are the limitations in the Pre-operational Stage?

Egocentrism, Centration, Appearance as reality

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What is Egocentrism?

difficulty thinking about others’ minds’; 3 Mountains Problem

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