Midterm Exam 1

studied byStudied by 3 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

Aldo Leopold

1 / 184

encourage image

There's no tags or description

Looks like no one added any tags here yet for you.

185 Terms

1

Aldo Leopold

  • Hired as chair of game management at UW-Madison in 1933

  • Created first academic program in wildlife management

  • First professor of our 318 course (then 118) starting in 1939

New cards
2

Leopold’s Contributions

  • Author of Game Management and A Sand County Almanac

  • Wilderness advocate

  • “The Shack”

  • Habitat Conservation

  • First to apply science of ecology to practice of conservation

New cards
3

Ecology

The relationships between organisms and their environment

New cards
4

Wildlife Ecology

  • Applied ecology of wild terrestrial vertebrates and their plant and animal associates

  • The science behind the practice of wildlife management

New cards
5

Basic Science

Increase knowledge and understanding without immediate benefit or practical application

New cards
6

Applied Science

Motivated by a specific need for information

New cards
7

Applied Ecology

  • Natural resource management (wildlife, fisheries, forestry, range, etc.)

  • Conservation biology

  • Restoration ecology

  • Landscape ecology

  • Agroecology

  • Urban ecology

New cards
8

Wildlife Management

The art and science of manipulating populations, habitats, and people to achieve some desired outcome

New cards
9

Goals of wildlife management

  • Increase rare or threatened species

  • Decrease overabundant, invasive, or nuisance species

  • Stabilize sustainable harvest of game species

  • Monitor - do nothing, but keep track of species

New cards
10

Ecology at the individual level

Focus: Interactions between individual organisms and their biological and physical environment

New cards
11

Properties of Individual Organisms

  • Genotype

  • Phenotype

  • Anatomy

  • Morphology

  • Physiology

  • Behavior

  • Fitness

New cards
12

Fitness

  • Genetic contribution of an individual to future generations

  • Natural selection acts on individual organisms by favoring those with greater fitness

New cards
13

Ecology at the population level

  • Population = group of individuals of the same species in the same area at the same time

  • Basic unit of evolution

  • Population dynamics = changes in population size over time

New cards
14

Properties of populations

  • Population size

  • Population density

  • Geographic range

  • Sex ratio

  • Age structure

  • Birth and death rates

  • Immigration and emigration

New cards
15

Ecology at the community level

  • Community = group of interacting species in the same area at the same time

  • Interactions between species: Interspecific competition, predation, mutualism, etc.

  • Food chains and food webs

  • Variation over time: Succession

New cards
16

Properties of communities

  • Composition

  • Structure

  • Species richness

  • Relative abundance pattern

  • Diversity

  • Stability

New cards
17

Ecology at the ecosystem level

  • Ecosystem = all organisms in an area and their physical environment

New cards
18

Properties of ecosystems

  • Biotic environment = living organisms

  • Abiotic environment = soil, water, climate, geology, etc.

  • Energy production

  • Nutrient cycling

  • Carbon sequestration

  • “Ecosystem services”

New cards
19

Scientific Method

  • Make an observation

  • Ask a question

  • Form a hypothesis

  • Conduct an experiment

  • Accept / reject hypothesis

New cards
20

Hypothesis formation

  • Start out with an observation of a natural pattern

  • Pose a research question to explain the observed pattern

  • Propose hypothesis as possible answer to research question

New cards
21

What makes a good hypothesis

  • Simple

  • Well-defined

  • Testable

  • Falsifiable (possible to disprove)

New cards
22

Why can’t hypotheses be “proved”

We collect data and conduct experiments to either support or refute our hypothesis

New cards
23

Descriptive research (observational study)

  • Observe events occuring in nature and describe patterns

  • Much of wildlife research before 1980s was descriptive

New cards
24

Experimental research

  • Look at the response of one variable to changes in some other variable(s)

  • Compare manipulated “treatment” froups with “control” groups to measure the magnitude of change resulting from experimental treatments

New cards
25

Advantage of experimentation

Only way to determine cause-effect relationship

New cards
26

Manipulative experiments

  • Vary conditions in treatment groups and compare to control groups with no variation

  • Usually conducted in the laboratory, but can also be conducted in the field

  • Limited scope of inference

New cards
27

Natural Experiments

  • Take advantage of natural variation in the environment, rather than manipulating conditions

  • Not “true” experiments

  • Example: Compare burned to unburned areas following burn

  • Most wildlife research involves natural experiments

New cards
28

What makes a good experiment?

  • Clearly articulated hypothesis

  • Systematic variation

  • Replication

New cards
29

Systematic variation

Experiments involve varying one factor to determine its effect on another factor, while holding all other factors constant

New cards
30

Types of variables

  • Independent (treatment) variables = those that you manipulate

  • Dependent (outcome) variable(s) = what you measure to determine the effect of manipulating an independent variable

  • Potentially confounding variables = those that are held constant in an experiment

New cards
31

Groups to compare in an experiment

  • Experimental group = independent variable manipulated

  • Control group = baseline condition of the independent variable

New cards
32

Replication

  • Experimental unit = entity to which an experimental treatment is applied

  • Experimental and control treatments should be applied to multiple experimental units

New cards
33

Forms of replication

  • Multiple experimental units in each group

  • Multiple measurements of the dependent variable(s)

  • Multiple runs of the entire experiment

New cards
34

Why is replication important?

  • Avoid drawing conclusions from misleading results

  • Increase scope of inference of an experiment

  • Allow us to determine the degree of variability in the data

New cards
35

Ecology of individual animals - themes

  • Adaptions to maximize fitness

  • Trade-offs

  • Economy - balancing gains and losses

  • Effects of body size and shape

  • Effects of climate

  • Differences among vertebrate groups

New cards
36

Physiological ecology

  • Study of physiological functioning of organisms in relation to their environment

  • How species adapt to their environments and how environmental conditions restrict where species can live

New cards
37

Factors that affect where species live

  • Tempterature

  • Precipitation

  • Amount of sunlight

  • Nutrient availability

  • pH

  • Other species

  • Soil conditions

New cards
38

Potential evapotranspiration (PET)

  • Total amount of evapotranspiration that would take place if there were enough water available

  • Affected by temperature, isolation, and wind

  • PET in mm = 2X avg. temperature in degrees C

New cards
39

Actual evapotranspiration (AET)

  • Actual amount of evapotranspiration that takes place given temperature and water availability

  • AET = PET when the ground is wet and there is sufficient precipitation

  • AET = precipitation when precipitation is scarce

New cards
40

Liebig’s Law of Minimum

Growth and reproduction are limited by the availability of the scarcest resource

New cards
41

Tolerances

  • Physiological tolerances = limits on environmental conditions that an organism can tolerate

  • Geographic range of a species is largely determined by its tolerances to environmental variables

New cards
42

Shelfold’s Law of Tolerance

Abundance or distribution of an organism depends on its range of tolerance for various environmental factors

New cards
43

Reactions to changing environments

  • Geographic range shift

  • Extinction

  • Acclimation

  • Adaptation

New cards
44

Adaption

Any heritable trait that increases and individual’s fitness

New cards
45

Adaptions can be

  • Behavioral = action

  • Morphological = structure

  • Physiological = function

New cards
46

Fitness

  • Genetic contribution of an individual to future generations

  • Trade-off: maximize number of offspring vs. maximize offspring survival

New cards
47

Homeostasis

Maintaining constant internal conditions independent of the external environment

New cards
48

Surface area-to-volume ratio (SA:V)

  • High SA:V means more exposure to the environment, more heat and water loss

  • As body size increases, SA:V decreases

New cards
49

Water Budget Formula

Wnet= Inputs - Outputs

New cards
50

Inputs: ingestion, Wing

Water obtained from drinking or from eating food with a high moisture content (“performed” water)

New cards
51

Inputs: metabolic water, Qmet

Water obtained as a byproduct of the breakdown of nutrients

  • C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy

New cards
52

Outputs: secretion, Wsec

Elimination of waste products, including urine and feces

New cards
53

Nitrogenous wastes: uric acid vs. urea

  • Birds and most reptiles = uric acid

    • Requires less water to excrete

  • Mammals and most amphibians = urea

    • Requires less energy to produce

New cards
54

Outputs: evaporation, Wevap

  • Water lost directly from skin or from respiratory tract as animal exhales

  • Includes water loss through panting or sweating

New cards
55

Input or Output: Osmotic exchange, Wosm

  • Direct absorption (freshwater) or loss (saltwater) of water through osmosis in aquatic animals

  • Important in fish, but insignificant in terrestrial mammals

New cards
56

Complete water budget

  • Wnet = Inputs - Outputs

  • Wnet = Wing +Wmet +- Wosm - Wsec - Wevap

New cards
57

Behavioral adaptations to desert life

  • Active at night

  • Live in burrows

  • Seek food with high preformed or metabolic water content

  • Aestivation = summer or dry season dormancy

New cards
58

Morphological adaptations to desert life

  • Body parts adapted for fat storage

  • Long extremities for dissipating heat

New cards
59

Physiological adaptations to desert life

  • Dry feces

  • Concentrated urine (long loops or Henle - where water reabsorption occurs back into the bloodstream)

New cards
60

Physiological adaptations to desert life

Cooling and condensation in nasal passages reduce water loss during exhalation

New cards
61

Gloger’s Rule

Endotherms of a given species tend to be darker in humid environments and lighter in arid environments

New cards
62

Adaptations to marine environment

  • Salt glands of reptiles and birds

  • Marine mammals produce concentrated urine and avoid drinking sea water

  • Milk of lactating marine mammals is very concentrated

New cards
63

Heat source: endo vs. ectotherms

  • Endotherms use an internal heat source to thermoregulate

  • Ecotherms use an external heat source to thermoregulate

New cards
64

Constancy: Homeo- vs. poikilotherms

  • Homeotherms maintain a constant body temperature

  • Poikilotherms have a body temperature that varies with environmental temperature

  • Heterotherm - under certain conditions can allow their body temperature to flucuate

New cards
65

Advantages of endothermy

  • Tolerate wider range of conditions

  • Can be active day or night, year round

  • Aerobic metabolism - sustain longer activity

New cards
66

Advantages of ectothermy

  • Greater efficiency

  • Lower energy demands

  • Able to survive long periods of low food availability

New cards
67

Metabolic rate and BMR

  • Metabolic rate = rate of heat production or energy expenditure

  • Basal (standard) metabolic rate (BMR) = lowest rate of energy expenditure of resting, fasting animal in its comfortable temperature range

New cards
68

Thermoneutral Zone

Temperature range over which a homeotherm can maintain a constant body temperature without raising its metabolic rate

New cards
69

Heat budger

Hnet = Inputs - Outputs

New cards
70

Absorbed solar radiation, Hsr (input)

Heat gained depends on exposed surface area, intensity of solar radiation, and the proportion of radiation that is absorbed

New cards
71

Metabolic heat, Hmet (input)

  • Heat generated through energy expenditure

  • Varies with body size and activity level

New cards
72

Thermal radiation, Htr (input or output)

  • Animals constantly both emit and absorb thermal radiation from their surroundings

  • Depends on animal’s body temperature, surface area, and emissivity

New cards
73

Conduction, Hcond (input or output)

Animals can either gain heat or lose heat to the ground and the surrounding air, depending on their relative temperatures

New cards
74

Convection, Hconv (inout or output)

  • Animals can gain or lose heat depending on relative temperature of animal and fluid

  • Heat transfer increases with wind speed

New cards
75

Evaporative cooling, Hevap (output)

  • Heat is released when water changes from liquid to gas (latent heat)

  • Animals cool off by sweating or panting

New cards
76

Heat Balance equation

Hnet = Hsr + Hmet +- Htr +- Hcond +- Hconv - Hevap

New cards
77

Bergmann’s Rule

Individual of a given species are larger in colder climates than in warmer climates

New cards
78

Allen’s rule

Individuals of a given species have shorter extremities in cold climates than in warm climates

New cards
79

Inefficiency of food consumption

  • 2nd law of thermodynamics

  • Net energy = gross energy - cost of extraction - feces - urine

New cards
80

Self-maintenance

  • Most of net energy consumed is devoted to self-maintenance

  • Includes cellular activity required to maintain BMR and physical activities required for survival

New cards
81

Self-maintenance energy demands

  • Looking for food

  • Processing food

  • Predator avoidance

  • Growth

  • Locomotion

  • Themoregulation

New cards
82

Reproduction

  • Energy left over after self-maintenance needs are met is devoted to reproduction

  • Trade-off: allocating energy to reproduction reduces survival probability

  • Animals will forego reproduction when short on energy

New cards
83

Reproduction energy demands

  • Courtship

  • Territorial defense

  • Nest or den construction

  • Gamete production

  • Egg laying or bearing live young

  • Lactation

  • Parental care

New cards
84

Time-energy budget

  • Recordof how an animal divides its time and energy expenditures among different activities to maximize net energy gain

  • Studies show that animals prioritize among activities in predictable ways

New cards
85

Field work

Observe animals in the field and record how much time they spend on different types of activities - time budget

New cards
86

Lab work

Have animal run, fly, or swim in the laboratory and measure its rate of O2 consumption to estimate energy expenditure

New cards
87

Environmental factors: Temperature

  • Energy required for thermoregulation increases as temperature decreases

  • Animals must eat more or or expend less energy in cooler weather

New cards
88

Environmental factors: Food availibility

  • Influences how much time and energy an animal must spend looking for food

  • Varies daily, seasonally, yearly

New cards
89

Intrinsic factors: body size

  • Small animals must eat much more relative to their body mass than large animals

  • Chickadees in winter must spend >90% of daylight time and energy looking for food

New cards
90

Intrinsic factors: Type of locomotion

Energetic cost: swimming < flying < running

New cards
91

Essential nutrients

  • Water

  • Carbohydrates

  • Fats

  • Proteins

  • Vitamins

  • Minerals

New cards
92

Macro- vs. micro-

  • Macronutrients = needed in relatively large quantities

  • Micronutrients = nutrients needed in very small quantities

New cards
93

Energy and nutrition for carnivores

  • Nutritionally balanced diet

  • Little variation in food quality

  • More difficult to get enough food, than to get a balanced diet

  • Face undernourishment

New cards
94

Energy and nutrition for herbivores

  • Food more abundant, but lacking in some nutrients, especially proteins and minerals

  • Food quality is highly variable

  • Face malnourishment

New cards
95

Nutritional quality for herbivores

seeds > fruit > buds > young leaves > old leaves > stems and branches > bark

New cards
96

Animals with specialized diets: hummingbirds

  • Diet: nectar (mostly carbohydrates)

  • Nectar very low in protein, vitamins, or minerals

  • Also eat insects and spiders to balance diet

New cards
97

Animals with specialized diets: vampire bats

  • Diet: blood (mostly protein)

  • Blood very low in fat or carbohydrates

  • Minimal nutrient storage - most consume and excrete large amounts of liquid

New cards
98

Animals with specialized diets: porcupines in winter

  • Diet: mostly tree bark (low in nutrition)

  • Low energy demands

  • Digestive microbes increase protein intake

  • Attracted to anything salty

New cards
99

Daily periodicity

  • 24-hour cycle of light and dark periods caused by earths rotation

  • Animal activity patterns follow daily fluctuations in environmental conditions

New cards
100

Environmental factors that fluctuate daily

  • Daylight

  • Temperature

  • Relative humidity

  • Precipitation

  • Food availability

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 146 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 18 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 155 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard131 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard41 terms
studied byStudied by 24 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard60 terms
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard87 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard24 terms
studied byStudied by 32 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard21 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard35 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard93 terms
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)