Psych - Trait & Biological

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Chapters 7, 8 & 9

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Consistent pattern in the way individuals behave, think and feel

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“Trait” implies…consistency and distinctiveness

  • describes irregularly in a person's behaviors

  • Collection of traits that define/describe and individual = disposition

  • Predispose us to act in a certain way

  • Concern with the traits by which people differ

  • Theorists do a lot of defining and identifying what traits are

    • Also interested in measurement

    • Personality inventories/tests

    • Identification of individual’s traits and provision of accurate description of person’s personality based on those traits

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Traits function to:

  • describe (taxonomy) - scientific way of classifying things

    • Goal is to identify the smallest number of traits that are possessed by everyone

  • Predict

    • With knowledge about a person’s traits -> should be able to predict how someone with be like in a particular situation or in general

      • Strength of these traits among individual varies and thus the individuals with behave differently

  • explain*

    • *not all trait theorists are concerned with this…

      • Majority are most interested in describing and predicting

      • Some suggest that traits can be used to explain a person’s behavior

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Trait =

  • Consistency

  • Stability

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State =

  • Has to do with a particular situation

  • Emotional experience of a person

  • Mood of a person

  • Immediate situation of a person

  • How our traits express themselves differently based on the state we are in

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Activities =

  • Things you can observe

  • Some say you can infer from observable actions how one behaves and what traits they have that results in their behavior

  • Might reflect traits, but might reflect state

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Roles =

  • In different roles that an individual is in, their traits will present differently

    • Determines how we behave, think and feel

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Gordon Allport (1897 - 1967)

  • Book had huge impact on the study of personality psychology

  • Father of personality psychology

  • Spent most of academic career at Harvard

  • Humanistic view: person in state of “becoming”

    • Was trained as a Freudian

  • Emphasis on the individual’s unique behaviors and thoughts

    • internal , motivation and cognitive concerns as well

  • Believed personality was jointly caused by biology and psychology

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Allport’s Trait Theory

  • Traits are neuropsychic structures

    • Located in a part of our nervous system

    • Can infer they are via the expression of those traits

    • Couldn’t prove their “physical” existence

  • Traits can initiate and guide consistent forms of adaptive and expressive behavior

  • Traits are common or personal

    • Much more interested in the personal traits

  • Can be studied by nomothetic (standardized measures) or idiographic (flexible measures) methods

  • preferred idiographic method

<ul><li><p>Traits are neuropsychic structures</p><ul><li><p>Located in a part of our nervous system</p></li><li><p>Can infer they are via the expression of those traits</p></li><li><p>Couldn’t prove their “physical” existence</p></li></ul></li><li><p>Traits can initiate and guide consistent forms of adaptive and expressive behavior</p></li><li><p>Traits are common or personal</p><ul><li><p>Much more interested in the personal traits</p></li></ul></li><li><p>Can be studied by nomothetic (standardized measures) or idiographic (flexible measures) methods</p></li><li><p>preferred idiographic method</p></li></ul>
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Allport on trait consistency

  • Recognized importance of the situation

  • Traits explain consistency

  • Situation explains variability

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Cardinal Traits

  • Pervasive and dominant

    • Pervasive: affect every aspect of our lives

    • Dominant: very very strong, very important in terms of defining our personality

  • “Master motives”

  • “Ruling passions”

    • Define what we find interesting, stimulating and gravitate towards

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Central Traits

important, but control less of one’s behavior; typical descriptors

  • Cover more limited amount of situations than cardinal traits

  • More changeable, malleable

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Secondary Traits

less important or conspicuous

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Personality Development

  • Concept of the “self”

    • Uniqueness of the individual

  • Functional autonomy (ideally)

    • if the motive is functionally autonomous, the individual is doing that because they want to do that and it expresses a part of their personality

    • behavior based on present interests and conscious decisions

    • Behaviors not traceable to childhood experiences

    • Early development: peripheral motives and guided by tension reduction

      • Dependence on other people, means to enhance survival through meeting needs

    • Adult life: shift toward self-strivings

      • Doing things because it's what we consciously chose to do

      • Influence by our personality traits

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Allport’s Legacy

  • Valued contributions to personality & trait theory

  • Lack of explanation for traits

  • Research concerns:

    • No clear trait/situation link

    • No support for claim of hereditary influence

    • Over-reliance on idiographic methods

  • All other trait theorists have endeavored to establish a set of traits possessed by every person to some degree

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Raymond Cattel (1905 - 1998)

  • London scientist

  • Research assistant for Spearman

  • Spent time at Columbia

  • Factor analysis method

  • Surface traits

  • Source traits

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Surface Traits

  • ‘on the surface’; behavioral tendencies

    • Visible, observable in behaviors

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Source Traits

  • internal psychological structures that are the underlying cause of intercorrelations of surface traits

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Surface and Source Trait Relationship

  • A few source traits can create what seem to be many ‘different’ surface traits

  • A factor analysis of surface traits can reveal their underlying source traits

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Factor Analysis

  • A statistical tool for summarizing the ways in which a large number of variables are correlated

  • Premier tool used by trait theorists to identify the structures of personality

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Correlation Coefficient

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Factor Analysis: Step 1

Collect surface trait ratings from many people

<p>Collect surface trait ratings from many people</p>
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Factor Analysis: Step 2

Calculate correlations among those ratings

<p>Calculate correlations among those ratings</p>
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Factor Analysis: Step 3

Extract factors from the correlation matrix

<p>Extract factors from the correlation matrix</p>
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Factor Analysis: Step Four

Calculate factor loadings

<p>Calculate factor loadings</p>
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Factor Analysis: Step 5

Review the loadings and name the factors

<p>Review the loadings and name the factors</p>
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Factor Analysis: Step 2 example

calculate correlations among items

<p>calculate correlations among items</p>
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Factor Analysis: Steps 4 & 5 example

4: loading of 6 items on 2 factors

5: name the factors

<p>4: loading of 6 items on 2 factors</p><p>5: name the factors</p>
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Factor Analysis Benefits

  • Reduces the multiple reflections of personality to a smaller set of traits.

  • Provides a basis for arguing that some traits matter more than others.

  • Helps in developing assessment devices.

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Cattel: 3 categories of source traits

  • Ability traits

  • Temperament traits

  • Dynamic traits

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Ability Traits

skills that allow the individual to function effectively

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Temperament Traits

traits involved in emotional life

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Dynamic traits

traits involved in motivational life

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The Five Factor Model

Openness to experience





  • Considered good theory but not perfect

  • An adequate number of traits/factors to describe everyone’s personality

  • Each one of us possesses each of these traits on a continuum

<p>Openness to experience</p><p>Conscientiousness</p><p>Extraversion</p><p>Agreeableness</p><p>Neuroticism</p><ul><li><p>Considered good theory but not perfect</p></li><li><p>An adequate number of traits/factors to describe everyone’s personality</p></li><li><p>Each one of us possesses each of these traits on a continuum</p></li></ul>
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The Big Five Trait Factors and Scales

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Cross-Cultural Research

Cross-Cultural Research

Are the Big Five universal? Methodological issue: translation

  • DiBlas & Forzi, 1999

    • E, A & C replicated in Italian

  • DeRaad & Peabody, 2005

    • E,A, C “cross-lingually recurrent”

Costa and McCrea: Big five structure is a human universal

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NEO Personality Inventory (Neo-PI-R)

  • Primary assessment tool to assess the traits in an individual

  • Measures five factors & six ‘facets’

  • Good reliability & validity

    • Reliability: consistent results

    • Validity: measures what it says it measures

  • Agrees with other Big Five instruments

    • If someone takes it and another assessment tool that measures the big five the results will be similar

  • Correlates with Eysenck’s inventories & Cattell’s 16 factors

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Big Five - Six Facets

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Integration of Theories

  • Eysenck’s Extraversion and Neuroticism virtually identical to Extroversion and Neuroticism dimensions of Big Five

  • Eysenck’s Psychoticism corresponds to combination of Low Conscientiousness + Low Assertiveness

  • NEO-PI-R relates meaningfully with Q-Sort

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Costa and McCrea: Big Five more than descriptors

  • Each factor is a universal structure

  • Everyone has each psychological structure (trait) in varying amounts

  • Psychological structures (traits) causally influence psychological development

    • How we develop psychologically is due in part to the strength of these particular traits

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Costa and McCrea beliefs

  • Factors have a biological basis

  • Differences linked to the Big Five determined by genetic influences on neural structure & brain chemistry

  • The five traits are not influenced by the environment; strongest “nature” position possible

<ul><li><p>Factors have a biological basis</p></li><li><p>Differences linked to the Big Five determined by genetic influences on neural structure &amp; brain chemistry</p></li><li><p>The five traits are <em>not influenced by the environment</em>; strongest “nature” position possible</p></li></ul>
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Problematic Issues (Five Factor)

  1. How to link personality structures to personality processes

    1. Response: those are to be filled in by different theorists

  2. Claim that traits are not affected by social factors

    1. There is research that directly challenges this assertion

  3. Five-factor theory claims everyone has all five factors

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Growth and Development: longitudinal research

  • Evidence of stability over long time periods

  • Significant correlations among repeated measures

  • Change evident, despite stability

  • Greater stability in adulthood than in childhood

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Growth and Development

  • What accounts for differences across the lifespan?

    • Personality change?

    • Cohort effects?

      • Differences in different groups of people

      • Cohort: people who “go through life together”

      • Different cohorts experience the same events but within the context of the particular cohort

        • How particular events affect each cohort are different

<ul><li><p>What accounts for differences across the lifespan?</p><ul><li><p>Personality change?</p></li><li><p>Cohort effects?</p><ul><li><p>Differences in different groups of people</p></li><li><p>Cohort: people who “go through life together”</p></li><li><p>Different cohorts experience the same events but within the context of the particular cohort</p><ul><li><p>How particular events affect each cohort are different</p></li></ul></li></ul></li></ul></li></ul>
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Maybe we missed one? The Six Factor Model

  • Big Five model had been consensus since the 1980s

  • Sixth factor suggested: honesty/humility

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Six Factor Model?

  • Individual differences in the tendency to be truthful and sincere vs. cunning and disloyal are a reliable sixth factor

  • Validated across 7 languages

  • Not yet incorporated into theory or research

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Evaluation: Trait Theory

  • DATABASE: excellent

  • SYSTEMATIC: Cattell, yes; Eysenck, so-so; Costa & McCrea, not so much

  • TESTABLE: very good

  • COMPREHENSIVE: yes & no

  • APPLICATIONS: yes, in re: predictions; not strong in re: clinical usefulness

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Factor Analysis Benefits

  • Reduces the multiple reflections of personality (trait terms that you can use to describe somebody) to a smaller set of traits.

  • Provides a basis for arguing that some traits matter more than others.

    • If a factor accounts more a large amount of variability (load strongly) they are more important

  • Helps in developing assessment devices.

    • Aim to describe individuals based on trait theory

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Cattel: 3 categories of Source Traits

  • ability traits

  • temperament traits

  • dynamic traits

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Ability Traits (Cattel)

  • skills that allow the individual to function effectively

    • Success in dealing with the ups and downs of life

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Temperament Traits (Cattel)

traits involved in emotional life

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Dynamic Traits (Cattel)

  • traits involved in motivational life

    • What propels us to engage in particular activity

    • Traits involved in selection and pursuit of activities

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<p>The 16-PF Test (Cattel)</p>

The 16-PF Test (Cattel)

  • Every human being possesses these traits to a certain extent

  • Response on test determines where they fall on the continuum of a particular personality factor

  • Provide reasonable accurate description of personality

  • Benefits: fewer items to assess and terms to identify

  • Drawback: may not be entirely comprehensive - many not adequately/accurately describe a personality, things may be missing

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Cattel’s Legacy…

  • Strong foundation based on systematic research efforts

  • 16 PF continues to be widely used in applied settings

  • Work exerts little impact in contemporary personality science

    • The 16 factor approach is not parsimonious

      • Still too many

    • Based his theory on measurement, which is risky

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Hans Eysenck (1916-1997)

  • Born in berlin

  • Parents well known actors

  • Left germany in 1930s after Hitler assumed power

  • University of Dijon and then University of London

  • Majority of professional life in hospice

  • Took factor analytic method further

    • 3 factor model

  • Emphasized biological foundation of personality

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Secondary Factor Analysis (Eysenck)

used to identify a simple set of factors that are statistically independent (not correlated with each other)

  • Conducted factor analysis and secondary factor analysis

    • Re-factor-analyzed the first

  • Factors are commonly correlated; intercorrelations among factors can themselves be factor-analyzed

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  • Factor analytic trait dimensions derived from factor analysis

  • Highest level of hierarchy of traits

    • superfactor

    • trait level

    • Habitual response level: typical responses

    • Specific response level: responses based in specific contexts

  • Most people fall somewhere in the middle for most

  • Proposed that in addition to the 16PF not being independent, but that individuals who took that test would often end up with scores that correlated with other factors (overlap)

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<p>Extraversion (superfactor)</p>

Extraversion (superfactor)

organizes lower-level traits such as sociability, activity, liveliness and excitability

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<p>Neuroticism (superfactor)</p>

Neuroticism (superfactor)

(emotional stability vs. instability) organizes traits such as anxious, depressed, shy, and moody

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<p>General Personality Dimensions</p>

General Personality Dimensions

  • introversion/extroversion

  • emotional stability/instability

  • Anyone can be described within this two-dimensional space according to Eysenck

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<p>Psychoticism (superfactor)</p>

Psychoticism (superfactor)

  • “abnormal” qualities, including

    • aggressiveness, a lack of empathy, interpersonal coldness, and antisocial behavioral tendencies

      • Not everyone would have this

      • Only comes into play with individuals who display “abnormal” traits qualities

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Measuring Superfactors

  • Eysenck developed simple, self-report items designed to tap each of the factors

  • Included “lie scale” items:

    • (Yes / No response format)

    • Do you sometimes laugh at a dirty joke?

    • Did you always do as you were told as a child?

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Objective Measures: The “Lemon Drop Test”

  • Introverts & extraverts differ in amount of saliva produced

    • Based in reticular activating system

    • Introverts = more saliva

      • Very sensitive and highly responsive to stimuli

    • Extrovert = less saliva

      • Need more stimulation

  • Suggests a biological basis to individual differences

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Individual differences in introversion-extraversion

Introverts: more cortical arousal

Extroverts: less cortical arousal

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Twin Studies

suggest heredity accounts for some differences in extraversion

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Psychopathology (according to Eysenk)

  • Neurotic symptoms = biology + environment

  • Majority of neurotic patients: high N & low E scores

  • Criminals & antisocial persons: high N,E, & P

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Five Factor Model: “The Big Five”

Evidence-based approach focused on individual differences (Costa & McCrea 1992)

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Individual Differences

  • “How do people differ from each other?”

  • “Is there a set of basic…?”

    • Is there a set of factors that can accurately describe everyone’s personality?

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Five Factor Model Research Evidence

Factor Analyses of 3 types of data:

  • Trait terms in the natural language

  • cross-cultural research

  • Relation of trait questionnaires to other questionnaires

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Temperament - Thomas & Chess (1977)

  • Studied infants throughout childhood and adolescence

  • Biologically based

    • Primarily from developmental psychology

  • Individual differences

    • How we differ from each other personality-wise

  • Emotional & motivational tendencies

  • Evident early in life

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Longitudinal Study Design

  • Allows researchers to determine if psychological qualities in life are enduring over a long period of time

  • 2000: 1 year old

  • 2007: 7 years old

  • 2014: 14 years old

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New York Longitudinal Study

  • 100 children from birth to adolescents

  • Used parental ratings of reactions to different situations (biased)

  • Found that temperament styles tended to endure over the growth of the babies

  • Having parents rate them on things like, activity level, mood, persistence in task

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New York Longitudinal Study Infant Temperament Types - Easy

  • playful & adaptable

    • Easy to sooth, adapt readily to routines, “go with the flow”

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New York Longitudinal Study Infant Temperament Types - Difficult

  • negative & not adaptable

    • Easily upset and not easily calmed, not highly adaptable to routine

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New York Longitudinal Study Infant Temperament Types - Slow to warm up

  • low reactivity & mild responses

    • More reactive than easy babies but not as reactive as difficult babies

    • In between the two

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“Goodness to fit”

  • The particular environments that the caregivers provide are better fits for certain types of temperament styles in babies

    • Ex: a difficult baby would do better in a more quiet and calm household environment

  • Difficult babies found more trouble adjusting to things later in life, and easy babies had an easier time

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Buss & Plomin (1984) - Dimensions of Temperament

  • Used parental ratings of children’s behaviors (biased)

  • Found that individual difference in temperament were found stable across time and largely heritable

  • Twin studies supported genetic influence

  • Biological systems that underlie temperament were not identified

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Dimensions of Temperament (Buss & Plomin)

  • Emotionality

    • Ease of arousal in upsetting situations

    • General distress

  • Activity

    • How strongly and how fast the child’s motor movements are

  • Sociability

    • How responsive the child is to other

    • open/closed to new people

    • Do they make friends easily

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Kagan (1994, 2003, 2012)

  • Direct, objective measure used

    • Children in lab and observed behavior there

    • Reduced likelihood of bias, but in artificial setting

  • 2 clearly defined temperament profiles: INHIBITED/UNINHIBITED

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Inhibited (temperament profile)

  • reacted to unfamiliar situations/people with restraint, discomfort, distress - take longer time to settle down and relax in new situation, quiet, sought parental comfort, run and hide

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Uninhibited (temperament profile)

  • responded with curiosity and spontaneity to new things, laughing, smiling, engaging, much more comfortable

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Findings (inhibited vs. uninhibited) - Kagan

  • High reactivity should -> inhibited

  • Low reactivity should -> uninhibited

  • Videotaped in lab setting when exposed to novelty

  • 20% children = high reactivity

  • 40% children = low reactivity

  • 40% children = a mix

    • Found continuity in these results within longitudinal studies

    • Found that over time many reactive children did not become consistently fearful as they grew (influenced impart by parental attachment)

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Biological Influences on Inhibition

  • Uninhibited and inhibited people differ in brain

  • Amygdala

    • Strong emotions, fear and anger

    • Inhibited children = higher activity

  • Frontal cortex

    • Higher level of brain, involved in regulation of emotional response, influencing the amygdala

  • Stathmin (protein) & influence of gene

    • Studied in lower animals

    • Directly influences the activity/functioning of the amygdala

    • Mice with or without the protein differed in behavior

<ul><li><p>Uninhibited and inhibited people differ in brain</p></li><li><p>Amygdala</p><ul><li><p>Strong emotions, fear and anger</p></li><li><p>Inhibited children = higher activity</p></li></ul></li><li><p>Frontal cortex</p><ul><li><p>Higher level of brain, involved in regulation of emotional response, influencing the amygdala</p></li></ul></li><li><p>Stathmin (protein) &amp; influence of gene</p><ul><li><p>Studied in lower animals</p></li><li><p>Directly influences the activity/functioning of the amygdala</p></li><li><p>Mice with or without the protein differed in behavior</p></li></ul></li></ul>
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Consistency....and change of temperament

  • Influence of mother’s behavior during infancy

  • Degree of mother’s social support in early childhood

(Fox et al., 2005)

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Evolutionary psychology

  • Human nature is the product of evolutionary process via natural selection

    • Characteristics that enhance survival of the species are more likely to be passed on to future generations

  • Important to survival & reproductive success

  • Proximate causes: biological processes operating in the organism at the time the behavior is observed

  • Ultimate causes: Why is a given biological mechanism a part of the organism?

    • Is this biological mechanism somehow enhancing survival?

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Ultimate causes

  • Some biological features are better than others

  • Possession those features -> more likely to survive, reproduce, & be ancestors

  • The biological mechanism evolves: Population reflects beings who possess the adaptive biological mechanism

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Evolved tendencies

  • Some may no longer be adaptive

    • Persist even though they may no longer be adaptable

  • Are domain specific: solve particular problems in specific settings

  • Problems solved differently in:

    • Mate preferences

    • Parenthood

    • jealousy

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Buss: contents of human nature

  • Need to belong

    • Survival and reproduction relies on the ability to connect with others in the group: cooperating, achieving status (resources, attention, importance)

    • Being ostracized would be damaging

  • Helping & altruism

    • Helping others makes it more likely that you are going to receive help when you need it

    • Altruism: doing something good because you just want to do something good and don’t expect anything to be reciprocated

    • When people are helpful or altruism they are hoping it will be helpful for their survival

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Universal Emotions - Ekman, 1973

  • Provides support for evolutionary psychologists

  • Traveled around the world and took pictures of facial expressions and all the different subjects identified these seven different emotions

  • ~Contempt~Anger~Disgust~Fear~

  • ~Happiness~Sadness~Surprise!

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Mate preferences - parental investment theory: women

  • Biological differences cause women to invest more in parenting

    • Carry burden of pregnancy

    • Can pass genes on to fewer offspring

    • “mate value” (of men) dependent upon ability to provide protection & resources

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Parental investment theory: men

  • Men less concerned with protection

  • Can potentially pass genes on to large # of offspring

  • “mate value” (of women) determined by reproductive fitness: youth & physical attractiveness

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  • Women: certainty in regard to offspring

  • Men: potential for uncertainty in regard to paternity

    • Need to take steps to ensure investment is directed toward own offspring

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  • Buss: men & women should differ in terms of events that provoke jealousy

  • Research suggests…

    • Males: sexual infidelity more concerning

    • Women: emotional infidelity more concerning

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Eagly & Wood, 1999

  • Robustness/accuracy of EP research conclusions?

  • Societal characteristics

    • Similarity of roles

    • Greater gender equality

    • Interactions between biology & social factors suggested

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The fundamental lexical hypothesis

" “the most important individual differences in human transactions will come to be encoded as single terms in some or all of the world's languages”"

  • Goldberg

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Behavior Genetics

  • The study of genetic contributions to behavior

    • Estimate degree to which variation in psychological characteristics is due to genetic factors

    • Interaction between genes & environment

    • And where in the environment our genes have their effect

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  • A statistic that refers to the proportion of observed variance in a group of individuals that can be accounted for by genetic variance

  • refers to the variation in the population examined in a given study (not generalizable outside of the group of individuals being studied)

  • If h^2 is <1.0, there exists variance that is not accounted for by genetic factors

    • If 0 - genetics has no factor in the studied differences

    • If < 0 - environment plays a role

  • Describes the degree to which genetic differences among individuals cause differences in an observed property

(e.g., height, extraversion, optimism)

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Interpretation of h^2

  • h^2 DOES NOT indicated the degree to which genetics accounts for the fact that a particular individual has a particular characteristic

  • h^2 of .40 for inhibition DOES NOT MEAN that 40% of that trait is inherited

  • h^2 of .40 for inhibition means that genetics accounts for 40% of the variability between the people in the population studied

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Investigating Heritability - selective breeding

  • Done on animals

  • Animals with a desired trait are selected and mated

  • Same processed used through offspring to try to maintain consistency in traits

  • Concluded that heritability must play a factor in personality traits as demonstrated by the success of selective breeding

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Investigating Heritability - twin studies

  • Monozygotic (identical)

    • If two organisms are genetically identical, then any observed differences can be attributed to environment

    • Effects of biology endure even across different environments

  • Dizygotic (fraternal)

    • If two genetically different organisms are reared in the same environment, the differences are attributed to genetic material

  • Adoption studies

    • Studies that look at children raised by people other than their biological parents and are then compared to adoptive vs. biological parents

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