College History Exam 1 Chapters 1-5

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Political change that took place between 1765 and 1783

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1

Political change that took place between 1765 and 1783

American Revolution

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2

Why did colonists go to war?

Ruled unfairly by king

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3

1765; Forced colonists to pay for stamps for paper items; England needed money from fighting the French Indian War

Stamp Act

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4

Who protested the Stamp Act?

Patrick Henry

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5

A group of colonists who formed a secret society to oppose British policies at the time of the American Revolution

Sons of Liberty

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6

Chief Justice and lieutenant governor of Massachusetts who had his house ransacked by an angry mob in protest of the Stamp Act

Thomas Hutchinson

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7

A member of the Sons of Liberty who started the Committee of Correspondence to stir public support for American independence.

Sam Adams

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8

lawyer who defended British soldiers accused of murder in the Boston Massacre

John Adams

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9

The Stamp Act was repealed because it was costing the merchants of Britain too much money because the colonists were boycotting their goods (1766)

Why was the Stamp Act repealed?

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10

A son of Liberty, designed the Boston Massacre flyer used as propaganda by the colonists

Paul Revere

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11

Who were British soldiers of the Boston Massacre acquitted by?

Boston Jury

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12

Law passed by parliament allowing the British East India Company to sell its low-cost tea directly to the colonies - undermining colonial tea merchants; led to the Boston Tea Party

Tea Act of 1773

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13

Series of laws passed in 1774 to punish Boston for the Tea Party; Prevented trade from entering and leaving Boston Harbor

Intolerable Acts

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14

Who was appointed commander of Boston force?

George Washington

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15

Who wrote the majority of the Declaration of Independence?

Thomas Jefferson

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16

What were the reasons that Thomas Jefferson was the main author of the Declaration of Independence?

He was from Virginia, John Adams was obnoxious, Jefferson was a better writer.

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17

1776 statement, issued by the Second Continental Congress, explaining why the colonies wanted independence from Britain.

Declaration of Independence

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18

When did Congress finalize votes for the Declaration of Independence?

July 4, 1776

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19

What was the attitude of the American soldiers under Washington's command?

poor; did not want to be there/ wanted to go home

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20

What did George Washington think of his troops?

He did not consider them to be troops, undisciplined and out of order, dirty and nasty

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21

Why did Washington's troops cross the Delaware River?

They had no other choice than to go or they would be captured; troops conditions would get worse and they would lose.

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22

What was the outcome of the attack in Trenton on the Hessians?

American troops won; America's moral was boosted.

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23

What were the roles of women during the American Revolution?

planting, plowing, worked at front lines, cooked, nursed soldiers, collected money

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24

A woman who brought pitchers of water to soldiers. Her husband collapsed during a battle and she took his place and loaded canons.

Molly Pitcher

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25

A woman who disguised herself as a man so she could serve in combat. She was shot and took the musket ball herself so she would not be compromised.

Deborah Sampson

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26

Storeowner who refused to lower coffee prices; was attacked by a group of women who took him in a wagon.

Thomas Boylson

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27

Political advisor to her husband; stood up for women's freedom and rights; was admired by Jefferson and Washington

Abigail Adams

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28

Which state allowed women landowners to vote after America's constitution was released, but was taken away when the law became more specific?

New Jersey

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29

Who led the American troops during the surrender at Saratoga?

Horatio Gates

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30

What happened at Saratoga?

The British army surrenders when the American troops surround them with the help of the French.

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31

Why did the surrender at Saratoga catch the attention of the French?

The French decided American troops did something worthy when they made the British surrender.

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32

Who made an alliance with America after the British surrender?

France

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33

Who was a French citizen who volunteered to assist America?

Marquis de Lafayette

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34

What was the number one killer of soldiers?

Disease/ Sickness

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35

Who was a German that helped American troops with upgraded war training?

Baron Von Steuben

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36

Battle in which General Cornwallis and his British troops surrender to American and French forces; marks the end of the American Revolution

Battle of Yorktown

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37

Treaty of Paris

Agreement signed by British and American leaders (John Jay, John Adams, Ben Franklin) that stated the United States of America was a free and independent country.

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38

Why was Britain very friendly and giving with their peace negotiations to America? (Treaty of Paris)

Britain could continue to trade with America for goods; British wanted to see French and American alliance discontinued/ not get stronger.

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39

What is history?

The study of recorded events

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40

Primary Source

written record

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41

What are the things you must be to be considered civilized?

Have a city, written language, and religion

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42

Who was the first to explore and why?

Portugal because they boarder the ocean.

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43

Why do we never hear about African slave owners traded their slaves to the Spanish?

doesn’t fit our naritive (bias)

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44

Why did England not go deeper into Africa?

Disease

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45

What caused a high labor demand in the early stages of America?

sugar plantations

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46

What was traded during the Columbus Exchange?

Food, Plants, animals, and disease

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47

Who was involved in the Columbus Exchange?

America, Europe, and Africa

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48

Reason for world exploration?

spice trade

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49

What’s the real reason Columbus was rejected?

“too far”

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50

Spain’s number one economic interest?

gold and silver

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51

What’s ironic about Spain?

Inflation became too much after they found lots of gold and silver

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52

What was the number one econ in France?

Fur trade

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53

Why did French “treat” natives better?

They wanted to trade fur with them so instead of taking over they learned their language and married/became family with them.

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54

What was the number one way to impress the natives?

Language and marriage

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55

Conquistador

Spanish soldier who led military expeditions

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Encomienda

You work for me I will bring you into a civilized christian life. (Spanish system)

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57

Who was Vasco Da Gama?

Portuguese explorer who was the first to arrive in in India. It took him 2 years.

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58

Who gained control over the Spice Trade?

Portuguese because they were the first to arrive.

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59

Where did the French go first?

Canada

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60

What was the group of catholic priests who went around Canada trying to convert natives to Catholic?

Jesuits/”Black Robes”

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61

What was the system the French used to get their fortunes from the natives?

Creative adaptions system

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62

Who was John Cabot and what was his goal?

He was an English explorer who claimed Eastern Canada for England. His goal was to find the Northwest passage.

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63

Who did the English colonize first? Why?

Ireland because they were catholic and barbaric.

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64

What were the English looking for?

A new life

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65

Why did England wait so long to colonize?

They were incapable due to Spanish threat, political problems, and protestant vs. catholic.

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66

What did England do before colonization in order to make a fortune?

Pirated Spanish ships

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67

What nickname was given to the groups that pirated Spanish ships?

Sea Dogs

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68

Who was important to England’s first attempt at Roanoke Island?

Sir Walter Raleigh

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69

During the second attempt at Roanoke who went back? Why? What stopped him from coming back?

John White, to get more supplies, and the Spanish Blockade stopped him from going back.

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70

When White got back what did he find?

Roanoke was abandoned except for a carving on a tree that said Croatoans.

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71

How long did it take England to figure out the colony thing?

Over 100 years

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72

Who wanted to attempt another colony (soon would be Jamestown) in America? Why?

Richard Hakluyt because it was a bigger risk not to try than to try and fail.

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73

Why was England’s story ironic?

They got into the game late and weak but eventually became big and dominant.

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74

Who founded Quebec?

Champlain

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75

Another name for Jamestown

Chesapeake

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76

Who was the governor of Massachusetts Bay?

John Winthrop

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77

Who posed an threat to the common wealth because of their unusual opinions about religion?

Anne Hutchinson

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78

What was a contract or license to create a colony called?

Charter

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79

What two early versions of self government were formed due to distance from England?

Mayflower Compact and House of Bayesse

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80

Who broke away from the catholic church and hated catholics?

Puritans

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81

Another name for pilgrims

Separatists

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82

Who granted a charter to start Jamestown?

King James l

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83

What was the primary goal of Jamestown?

economic venture

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84

Who loaned the money for the start of Jamestown?

Stockholders of Virginia

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85

Who originally was president of the colony?

John Smith

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86

Who is John Smith?

Storyteller, many adventures, not liked by the colonists, and was president of Jamestown

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87

After Smith left due to injury who took over?

George Percy

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88

Why was winter in Jamestown so bad when George Percy was president? What was this time known as?

He couldn’t make peace with the Powhatans.

Th Starving Time

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89

What happened during the starving time?

Canibalism

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90

Who saved Jamestown? How?

John Rolfe. He introduced tobacco.

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91

Due to the high labor demand in Jamestown for the tobacco plantations what system was created to solve the issue?

The headright system

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92

What was the headright system?

I’ll pay your trip to America if you work for me for a certain period of time (Indentured servants).

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93

Where did indentured servants come from?

Poor and in prisoned people from England

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94

Why was the headright system difficult for women?

They often got taken advantage of and were sexually assaulted because they were very outnumbered. If they got pregnant they had to work longer to make up lost time.

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95

Who founded Maryland? Why?

Lord Calvert ll because it was a safe haven for catholics.

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96

What happened to the safe haven in Maryland?

It was open to everyone so when the Puritans showed up they kicked out the catholics.

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97

What was Massachusetts Bay known as to the Puritans?

City on a hill

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98

Why was New Jersey and Pennsylvania so open and generous?

They needed people to come

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99

Middle colonies

very diverse, religious freedom, and political equality

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100

Southern Colonies

They lived on plantations, short workers therefore resorted to slavery, hot climate, and Spanish threat (buffer).

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