Biology Test 1

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Biology

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134 Terms

1

Biology

the scientific study of life

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2

Organization

Hierarchy of complex biological structures

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3

Biosphere

Consists of all life on Earth and all parts of the Earth in which life exists, including land, water, and the atmosphere.

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4

Biome

A group of ecosystems that share similar climates and typical organisms

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5

Ecosystem

A community of organisms and their abiotic environment

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6

Community

All the different populations that live together in an area

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7

Population

A group of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area

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8

Organism

An individual living thing

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9

Organ System

A group of organs that work together in performing vital body functions.

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10

Tissue

A group of similar cells that perform the same function.

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11

Cell

Basic unit of life

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12

Organelle

specialized structure that performs important cellular functions within a eukaryotic cell

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13

Macromolecules

A very large organic molecule composed of many smaller molecules

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14

Molecule

two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds

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15

Atom

Basic unit of matter, building block of element

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16

Eukaryotic cells

Contain a nucleus and other organelles that are bound by membranes.

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17

Prokaryotic cells

cells without a nucleus or other membrane-bound organelles

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18

Structure and Function

Body parts have different forms, depending on their jobs

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19

Diversity

(n.) difference, variety; a condition of having many different types of forms

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20

Binomial Nomenclature

Classification system in which each species is assigned a two-part scientific name

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21

Classification

The process of grouping things based on their similarities

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22

Domains

Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya

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23

Bacteria

Domain of unicellular prokaryotes

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24

Archaea

Domain of unicellular prokaryotes, extremophiles

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25

Eukarya

Domain of all organisms whose cells have nuclei, including protists, plants, fungi, and animals

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26

Kingdom

First and largest category used to classify organisms

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27

Phylum

Group of closely related classes

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28

Kingdom Protista

Contain one celled eukaryotes such as algae and protozoa.

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29

Kingdom Fungi

Consists of unicellular and multicellular organisms that cannot make their own food (heterotrophs)

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30

Kingdom Plantae

Complex, multi-cellular organisms that use photosynthesis to make food.

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31

Kingdom Animalia

contain organisms that are multicellular eukaryotes including vertebrates and invertebrates, absorb nutrients

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32

Kingdom Eubacteria

a kingdom of prokaryotic organisms that contains mostly free-living and common bacteria; classified under Domain Bacteria

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33

Kingdom Eubacteria

-Prokaryote, Unicellular, autotrophic, Has cell wall with peptidoglycan

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34

Class

in classification, a group of closely related orders

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35

Order

Group of similar families

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36

Family

Group of genera that share many characteristics

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37

Genus

A group of similar species

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38

Species

A group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring.

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39

Scientific Method

A series of steps followed to solve problems including collecting data, formulating a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, and stating conclusions.

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40

Scientific Theory

A well-tested explanation for a wide range of observations or experimental results.

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41

Element

A substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances

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42

Compound

A substance made up of atoms of two or more different elements joined by chemical bonds; emergent properties

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43

Neutron

A subatomic particle that has no charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom

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44

Proton

A subatomic particle that has a positive charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom

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45

Electron

A subatomic particle that has a negative charge

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46

Atomic Mass

Number of protons and neutrons

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47

Atomic number

the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom

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48

Reactants

a substance that takes part in and undergoes change during a reaction.

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49

Products

The elements or compounds produced by a chemical reaction.

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50

Isotopes

Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons

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51

Radioactive Isotope

An isotope whose nucleus decays spontaneously, giving off particles and energy.

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52

Electron Shell

a grouping of electrons surrounding the nucleus of an atom

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53

Electron Orbital

the three-dimensional space where an electron is found 90% of the time

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54

Valence Shell

outermost electron shell

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55

Covalent Bond

A chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons between atoms in a molecule

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56

Ionic Bond

A chemical bond resulting from the attraction between oppositely charged ions.

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Ions

positively and negatively charged atoms

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58

Hydrogen Bond

Attraction between a slightly positive hydrogen atom and a slightly negative atom.

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Chemical Equlibrium

the point at which the reactions offset one another exactly

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Polar Covalent Bond

A covalent bond in which electrons are not shared equally

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61

Polar Molecule

molecule with an unequal distribution of charge, resulting in the molecule having a positive end and a negative end

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62

Cohesion

an attraction between molecules of the same substance

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63

Surface tension

A measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid

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64

Adhesion

An attraction between molecules of different substances

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65

Thermal Energy

The total energy of motion in the particles of a substance

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66

Heat

thermal energy in transfer from one body of matter to another

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67

Specific Heat

the heat required to raise the temperature of the unit mass of a given substance by a given amount (usually one degree).

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68

Heat of Vaporization

the quantity of heat a liquid must absorb for 1 g of it to be converted from the liquid to the gaseous state

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69

Evaportive Cooling

The process in which the surface of an object becomes cooler during evaporation, a result of the molecules with the greatest kinetic energy changing from the liquid to the gaseous state.

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70

Solution

A homogeneous mixture of two or more substances

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71

Solute

A substance that is dissolved in a solution.

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72

Solvent

the substance in which the solute dissolves

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73

Hydration Shell

the sphere of water molecules around each dissolved ion

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74

Hydrophilic

Having an affinity for water.

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75

Hydrophobic

Water fearing

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76

Molecular Mass

The sum of the masses of all the atoms in a molecule

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77

Mole

the SI base unit used to measure the amount of a substance

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78

hydrogen ion (H+)

a single proton with a charge of 1+

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79

hydroxide ion (OH-)

A negatively charged ion made of oxygen and hydrogen.

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80

hydronium ion (H3O+)

the positive ion formed when a water molecule gains a hydrogen ion

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81

Acid

A substance that increases the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution.

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82

Base

A substance that decreases the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution.

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83

Ph Scale

scale with values from 0 to 14, used to measure the concentration of H+ ions in a solution; a pH of 0 to 7 is acidic, a pH of 7 is neutral, and a pH of 7 to 14 is basic

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84

PH

hydrogen ion concentration

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85

Buffer

compound that prevents sharp, sudden changes in pH

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86

Acidification

The lowering of the pH of a solution.

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87

Organic Chemistry

the study of compounds containing carbon

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88

Hydrocarbon

Compounds composed of only carbon and hydrogen

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89

Isomer

Compounds with the same formula but different structures/properties

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90

Structural isomer

Compounds that have the same molecular formula but differ in the covalent arrangements of their atoms.

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91

Cis Trans Isomers

have the same covalent bonds but differ in spatial arrangements due to inflexibility of double bonds

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92

Enantiomers

isomers that are mirror images of each other

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93

Functional Groups

chemical groups attached to carbon skeletons that give compounds their functionality

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94

Hydroxyl Group

-OH (alcohol)

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95

Cabonyl Group

C=O

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96

Carboxyl group

A -COOH group, found in organic acids.

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97

Amino Group

(—NH2) a functional group composed of nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms and to the carbon skeleton. Can act as a base in solution, accepting a hydrogen ion and acquiring a charge of +1.

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98

Sulfhydryl group

-SH, thiol

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99

Phosphate Group

PO4 3-, organic phosphate, sugar, nitrogenous base

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100

Methyl Group

-CH3, methylated compound

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