Unit 2 Exam

studied byStudied by 11 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

Biological selectivity of weeds

1 / 155

Tags and Description

156 Terms

1

Biological selectivity of weeds

herbicide kills weed with minimal effect to crop because of natural tolerance or through GMOs

New cards
2

What amount of older herbicides were needed

lbs per acre

New cards
3

what amount of herbicide is needed now

ounces per acre

New cards
4

pre-emergence herbicide

before weeds emerge

New cards
5

pre-plant herbicide

before crop is planted

New cards
6

broad cast application

treat entire area

New cards
7

ground applicators

type of broadcast application using tractors

New cards
8

aerial application

broadcast application using crop dusters

New cards
9

herbigation

type of broadcast application using irrigation to distribute herbicide

New cards
10

Banding

application of herbicide on a specific region of the feild

New cards
11

what scenarios is banding used?

used in orchards, vinyards, and nurseries

New cards
12

Directed spray

spray that specifically targets weeds without touching crops

New cards
13

hooded boom

protects crop during directed spray

New cards
14

Spot spray

used primarily for post emergence application for targeting weeds in patches.

New cards
15

can have a 90% savings

advantage to spot spray

New cards
16

Rope wick applicator

touches weeds taller than crop and applies systemic herbicide to weed

New cards
17

Active Ingredient

herbicide doing the work

New cards
18

inactive ingredient

compounds that make the herbicide work better

New cards
19

Additives

designed to help herbicide not react in water and minimize off-target damage

New cards
20

disadvantages to tillage

can’t work in wet soil, and causes land to be more susceptible to dust storms

New cards
21

IWM Integrated weed managment

practices multiple techniques to keep weeds off balance and avoid resistance

New cards
22

elements to IWM

physical, cultural, biological, and chemical

New cards
23

Invasive definition

non-indignous species that becomes established in a natural plant community and replaces native vegetation and is likely to cause economic harm or environmental harm

New cards
24

noxious weed definition

native plant that is injurious to agricultural or horticultural crops and/or humans and livestock

New cards
25

how many noxious weeds in MO?

10 genera 12 species

New cards
26

what percent of species in MO are considered non-native

25%

New cards
27

most abundant invasive weed in US

downy brome. introduced in wheat from europe

New cards
28

are all non-native species a problem?

no, soybeans are fine

New cards
29

reasons plants may become invasive

  1. comes to new area without predators

  2. ability to grow rapidly

  3. we do not recognize them as invasive since they are grown as ornamentals

  4. prolific reproduction so native species out competed

  5. ability to thrive in a wide variety of habitats

  6. exhibit defense mechanisms that put other plants at a disadvantage

  7. abiltiy to exploit limiting factors

  8. invasive species are not recognized by native animals

New cards
30

serecea lespedeza history

brought over as erosion control but it got out of hand

New cards
31

novel weapon hypothesis

invasives produce chemicals that native plants are not used to

New cards
32

enemy release only the healthiest plants

people introduce non-sick plants thus don’t have any of the natural predators

New cards
33

Better competitors hypothesis

must be able to last longer in competition

New cards
34

Smeda theory

start at low levels and by the time people recognize them they are beyond our ability to handle them

New cards
35

where are invasive weeds the biggest problem in the USA

western states and right of ways

New cards
36

FIFRA (Federal insecticide Fungicide rodenticide act)

developed in 1947 from USDA and said that pesticides for shipment must be registered with the secretary of agriculture

New cards
37

What happened before FIFRA

no container guidelines

No restrictions on transport

no warrenty of product

no saftey or effectivess warnings

New cards
38

EPA (Environmental protection agency)

the fire of the OH river catelized the creation of this organization

New cards
39

Goal of pesticide labels

dictate how pesticide is to be used, number of applications, crop to be used on, pre-harvest, rentry intervals and disposal

New cards
40

Who is responsible for pesticide use and how long?

you the user forever

New cards
41

ways to reduce invasive weeds

-eliminate propigation factors

-use effective tools

-establish native species in the open spaces

-education of the public

-understand the weed

-organization of mutliple groups of people

New cards
42

meaning of label for manufacturer

it’s their permit to sell, and how they pay for research and development

New cards
43

meaning of label for buyer or user

how to use the product correctly

New cards
44

meaning of label to federal or state government

method of control, distribution, sale, use, and disposal

New cards
45

label meaning to physicians

source of informationg for treating patients

New cards
46

PIP

Plants incorperates Protectants

New cards
47

Trade name

name of pesticide copyrighted by the company (subject to change)

New cards
48

common name

simplified version of chemical name, can have same common name for different trade names

New cards
49

chemical name

IUPAC name that gives provides the proper chemical nomenclature

New cards
50

General use pesticides

will not cause adverse affects if used as directed

New cards
51

resitricted use pesticides

must possess proper license for each state you use it in

New cards
52

reciprocity

able to transfer restricted use license to ajoining states

New cards
53

Caution signal word

slightly toxic if consumed or inhaled or absorbed

New cards
54

warning signal word

moderately toxic if consumed inhaled or absorbed

New cards
55

danger signal word

very poisonous or irritating to skin or eyes, use with extreme care

New cards
56

who needs a license?

certified commercial applicators

certified non-commercial apllicators

certified public applicators

New cards
57

1A license

agricicultural plant pest control

New cards
58

3 license

ornamental and turf pest control

New cards
59

6 license

right of way pest control

New cards
60

why regulate pesticides

protect the public from adverse effects

ensure proper use of chemicals to reap the full benefits

legistlation ensures consistant use of chemicals

demonstrates to the public that it is safe to use

New cards
61

Food and drug act of 1906

first law specifically addressing pesticides, arsinec in the UK

New cards
62

Insecticide act of 1910

targeted unethecal selling of mislabed pesticides, did not address the toxic affects just made you label them

New cards
63

Federal Food Drug and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) 1938

set standards for labeling products in response to food poisoning cases

New cards
64

FIFRA act of 1947

addressed the safety of pesticides and the environment. Started looking at residues in the environment and showed that the company was responsible for making safe pesticides

New cards
65

FIFRA ammendment (delaney clause)

stated that no substances known to cause cancer in humans or animals would be deliberately put in food.

New cards
66

problem with delaney clause

did not account for parts per trillion that are now able to be found in food since our technology is so much better.

New cards
67

Food Quality Protection Act (1996)

abolished delaney clause, set a new standard for reasonable amount regarding pesticides, created adult and child standards

New cards
68

Risk assessment cup

introduced with the Food quality protection act, has a risk cup for each pesticide that takes into account the exposure from all different avenues and will not allow the cup to get above a certain level

New cards
69

how are most pesticides discovered

serendipitously

computer assisted modeling (analogs)

New cards
70

Steps for getting a compound released

analog studies

mice studies

primary studies

secondary studies

field trials

New cards
71

EPA requriments for pesticide to be released

pesticide composistion is valid

EPA label good

no adverse affects on non-target organisms and the environment

New cards
72

best canditate for how to handle resistant plants?

non-selective, systemic herbicides and have your crop be resistant

New cards
73

PIP

plant incorperated protectants. plants are build with anti herbivory and weed suppressing chemicals

New cards
74

Early Use Permit (EUP)

can be issued by EPA if it is an emergency and you are going to use it on lesss than ten acres of land or less than one acre of aquatic, effective for 1 year

New cards
75

section 18 of FIFRA

allows the unregistered use of an herbicide for a limited use for a special cost. one year permit, must be an emergency and requires EPA support

New cards
76

Section 24c of FIFRA

special local need. a state can register the early used but it must have a special need. this can be longer than a year but EPA still must approve

New cards
77

4 phases of soil

liquid, solid, gaseous, living. all impact herbicide activity

New cards
78

concentration gradient rule for herbicide

must have high concentration outside plant so it will go to the inside

New cards
79

what happnes to the herbicide if the parent molecule changes

it is no longer the herbicide you started with

New cards
80

Adsorption

herbicide ions stick to the surface of soil particles

New cards
81

clay

the most potential adsorption locations as well as the most surface area since they are so small

New cards
82

size order of soil particles large to small

sand→silt→clay

New cards
83

Kd

soil sorption coefficient

New cards
84

what does kd measure

ratio of herbicide bound to the soil vs free in soil solution

New cards
85

does water solubility affect Kd?

nope, not really

New cards
86

a high Kd value means

more herbicide adsorbed to the soil than free in solution

New cards
87

Absorption

referes to the passage of an herbicide through the surface of a particle

New cards
88

Absorbed herbicides are

unavailable until the particle they are in breaks down

New cards
89

what soils need more herbicide in order to work?

soils high in clay or organic material since more absorption and adsoprtion means less herbicide in soil solution for plant to use

New cards
90

Desorption

the release of absorbed or adsorbed herbicides into soil solution

New cards
91

what is the most important process to initiate desorption?

RAIN it takes away the binding sites on the soil particles from the herbicide and forces the herbicide inot the solution

New cards
92

CEC (cation exchange capasity)

the higher the CEC the greater the ability to store plant nutrients in the soil

New cards
93

Soil CEC increases with

clay and organic matter. generally adsorption of herbicides increases as CEC increases

New cards
94

Acidic pH affect on adsorption

higher adsorption

New cards
95

photodegredation

UVB and UVA create changes in the parent molecules thorugh radiation from the sun

New cards
96

Microbes and herbicide effect

microbes will break down molecules or take pieces off of the parent molecule changing the shape/function

New cards
97

leaching

movement of herbicide with water

New cards
98

Koc

determines how subject an herbicide is to leaching

New cards
99

to find Koc

divide Kd by the wieght fraction of the organic carbon in the soil

New cards
100

high Koc value

correlates to less mobile herbicide (higher kd)

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 17 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 9879 people
Updated ... ago
4.8 Stars(32)
note Note
studied byStudied by 19 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(3)
note Note
studied byStudied by 13 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 174 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 14 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 18 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard54 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard253 terms
studied byStudied by 66 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard46 terms
studied byStudied by 20 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard25 terms
studied byStudied by 233 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard57 terms
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard30 terms
studied byStudied by 31 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard134 terms
studied byStudied by 34 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard873 terms
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)