World history exam 2

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What was unique about the Indian Ocean trade route?

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1

What was unique about the Indian Ocean trade route?

Run by Merchants

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2

What impact did Monsoons have on Indian Ocean Trade?

Made trading easier and safer because of predictable winds

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3

Why did China stop exploring during this time?

Afraid of losing identity

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4

After the fall of the Roman Empire, what changed about trade in Europe?

Trade DECREASED

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5

What role did the Church have on the people in the Middle Ages?

It impacted all of everyday life

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6

What is feudalism?

Politics based on land ownership and status

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7

Order of the different people in the feudal system?

  1. King

  2. Nobles

  3. Vassels

  4. Serfs

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8

Relationship between King and nobles

Kings would give nobles land and the nobles would give the kings protection

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9

Relationship between Nobles and Vassels

Land was given to Vassel from the Nobles and Vassels would give protection

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10

Serfs

People who stay on the land and work.

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11

Why is Europe from 500 to 1000 C.E. reffered to as the Dark Ages?

Decline of learning and cities in Europe

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12

What was the Renaissance?

The rebirth of Greek and Roman ideas

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13

Where did the Renaissance start?

Florence, Italy

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14

When did the Renasissance start?

After the dark ages

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15

What were some of the ideas focussed on during the Renasiassance?

  1. Humanism (anything with humans)

  2. Secularism (Not religious)

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16

What were some of the causes of the Renasiassance in Europe?

  1. Increase in trade

  2. Crusades

  3. The fall of Constantinople

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17

How did the Black Death impact Europe in relation to the start of the Renasiassance?

Survivors became less devoted to their religion and started questioning God. They turned to more pleasurable activities instead of religion.

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18

What was the Enlightenment?

Great thinkers against divine right and government control.

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19

What role did the Enlightenment play in revolutions of the time period?

Influenced questioning traditional authority and embraced the nation that humanity could be improved through rational change (Inspired Revolutions!)

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20

What were the main arguments of John Locke?

  1. All persons are endowed with natural rights to life, liberty, and property.

  2. Rulers who fail to protect this shall be removed.

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21

Which U.S document was largely inspried by John Locke’s ideas?

Declaration of Independance

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22

What were the 3 estates in France prior to the Revolution?

  1. Clergy

  2. Nobility

  3. Commoners

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23

Who were the Clergy?

They were the 1st estate and usually church members.

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24

Who were the Nobility?

They were the 2nd estate and the people had to be born a part of this class.

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25

Who were the Commoners?

They were the 3rd estate and they were everyone else (rich-poor), they were the only ones who had to pay taxes.

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26

What were the main problems in France that led to the Bread Revolution?

  1. Unfair taxes

  2. Famine

  3. Anger over social classes

  4. Bread riots

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27

Who led independence movements in large parts of South America and is nicknamed “The Liberator?”

Simon Boliver

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28

What was the enclosure?

Large portions of land, fenced in.

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29

How did the Enclosure play a role in the Industrial Revolution?

Pushed small farmers off the land and pushed them to find new jobs in the city.

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30

What was the cottage industry?

A small manufacturing business that is owned and operated by an individual or family typically operates out of a home rather than a factory.

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31

What industry was the first to industrialize in Britain?

The Textile Industry

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32

Why was Britain able to industrialize faster than other countries?

  1. Rivers and Canals

  2. High population

  3. Access to coal and iron

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33

What role did railroads play in the Industrial Revolution?

Made trade easier, faster, and cheaper

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34

Who were the Luddites?

People who didnt like new technilogical devices and refused to use them (Anti-textile)

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35

What were some of the hallmark characteristics of art in the Renaissance?

  1. Life-like (Realism)

  2. Secular (non religious)

  3. Human forms (Humanism)

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36

How did the printing press affect Europe in the 1400s?

It spreaded the ideas of the Renaissance

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37

What were some of the practices of the Catholic Church that people opposed?

Selling of Indulgences

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38

Who was Martin Luther? What was his goal?

A munk who wanted to reform the Catholic Church

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39

What were the 3Gs that were motivations for European exploration of the Americas?

God, Glory, and Gold

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40

What were the first Europeans to explore looking for?

Looking for a faster route to Asia to sell spices

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41

What advantages did the Conquistadors have in the conquest of the Americas?

  1. Guns

  2. Steel

  3. ⭐Disease

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42

What was the Columbian Exchange?

Exchange of goods, ideas, and disease.

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43

What was the Triangular trade?

The trading of goods between America, Europe, and Africa

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44

What did the United States trade to Europe?

Sugar, tabacco, and cotton

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45

What did Europe trade to Africa?

Textiles and manufactored goods

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46

What did Africa trade to the United States?

Slaves

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47

What is Merchantilism?

  1. The belief that wealth is final (Certain amount)

  2. Increase of exports

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48

What is capatilism?

  1. Wealth can be created

  2. Supply and demand help grow wealth

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49

What is absolutism?

Monarchy holds all power and has divine right

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50

What is divine right?

God gives the power to rule

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51

How was England’s monarchy different from France, Spain, and Russia during the Age of Absolutism?

They had checks and balances and no absolute power

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52

Capitialism

  • No government control

  • Private owners

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53

Socialism

  • Public ownership

  • Government owns industries

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54

Communism

  • Shared ownership

  • No social classes

  • Full governmental control

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55

What was imperialism?

Expansion of foreign countries into weaker countries for political control.

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56

What were the causes of imperialism?

  • Raw materials

  • Flexing rights

  • “White race deserved western land”

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57

White Man’s Burden

  • White people to manage the affairs of nonwhite people whom they believed to be less developed

  • Brought western culture and forced it upon natives

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58

Which country was the main imperialist force in the 19th century?

Britain

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59

What was a sepoy?

An indian soldier serving under British rule, they would control the Indian population. (East Indian Company)

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60

What was the main cause and effect of the Sepoy Rebellion?

Thought animal fat was being used for shell casings

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61

What was the division of Africa in the age of Imperialism called?

The Scramble for Africa

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62

What was the main issue with the Berlin Conference?

Didnt discuss this with Africa, no africans

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63

How did the boundary divisions created during the Berlin Conference lead to conflict later?

Tribes, religion, and language were seperated and werent kept in mind during division (caused war and genocide)

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64

What was the Cause of the Opium Wars?

Banned Opium then Britain showed up and threatened them with Gun ships

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65

What was the Meiji Restoration?

When the Japanese brings back emperor that embraces westernization and industrialization

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66

What was the big difference in the effect of Imperialism in Japan compared to China.

Japan embraced westernization

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67

What were the negatives of imperialism for the natives?

Loss of culture and identity

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68

What year did WWI start?

1914

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69

M

Militarism

  • Military was advancing and countries wanted to prove dominance

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70

A

Alliances

  • Secret agreements that made problems worldwide

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N

Nationalism

  • Extreme pride in their country

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72

I

Imperialism

  • Desire to grow

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73

A.

Assassination

  • The spark that officially started the wars

  • Franz Ferdinand

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74

What role did the U.S. play at the start of WWI?

They were neutral and refused to pick sides

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75

Which three countries made up the Central Powers?

  1. Germany

  2. Austria-Hungary

  3. Italy

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76

Which three countries made up the Triple Entente?

  1. Great Britain

  2. France

  3. Russia

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77

Describe the location and conditions of the tranch warfare in WWI

  • Located in Western fronts

  • Food was short

  • Dead people

  • Trench foot

  • Massive Artillery

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78

What is Shell Shock?

Pstd from war

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79

What is propoganda?

Biased informaton and emotional appeals

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80

What roles did colonies play in WWI

They were loyal and usually fought in the war for their mother country.

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81

Which of Britain’s colonies had the largest impact?

India / Indian colonies

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82

What effect did the Russian Revolution have on WWI?

Removed Russia from the war

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83

What document ended WWI?

The Treaty of Versailles

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84

What were the major conditions stated on the Treaty of Versailles?

  1. Germany takes all of the blame

  2. Germany is forced to pay lots of money

  3. The League of Nations was established

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85

What effect did WWI have on Russian, Ottoman, and Austro-Hungarian Empire?

Made them collapse

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86

Describe the German response the the Treaty of Versailles

They were unhappy and refused the effects and it helped Hilter Rise

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87

What is the Mandate system

  • A system that would divide collapsed Ottoman Empire

  • Put in after WWI in order to prepare colonies for independence

  • Caused resentment

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88

What was the official purpose of the mandate system?

To appropriate Ottoman land / divide it

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89

What actually resulted from the Mandate System?

The 'winners’ of WWI were given responsibility of the Ottoman land and some German territory

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90

Who was the fascist leader of Italy in the 1920s and 1930s?

Benito Mussolini

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91

What political party came to power in Germany in the 1930s?

The Nazi party

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92

What country did Italy invade in an act of imperialistic nationalism in the 1930s?

Ethiopia

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93

What was the goal of the Munich Conference?

To allow Germany to annex areas of Czechoslovakia

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94

What was the goal of appeasement?

To prevent war

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95

What countries did Hitler invade?

Poland and Czechoslavakia

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96

What was the name of the agreement between Germnay and the Soviet union made in 1939 where they agreed not to attack on another?

Non-Aggression Pact

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97

What were the main problems with the League of Nations?

  • No United States

  • No power to make army

  • All had to unanimously agree

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98

What did japan do in 1931 in the region of Manchuria?

They invaded it in search of raw materials and power.

  • start of Japan’s militarism

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99

Manchuria

Northern China

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100

What three major countries made up the Allies during WW2?

  1. Great Britain

  2. United States

  3. Soviet Union

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