ap psych unit 9 free response terms

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stereotypes

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52 Terms

1

stereotypes

an overgeneralized belief about a particular group of people

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2

prejudice

a preconceived judgment toward a certain person based on their group

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3

discrimination

the unjust treatment toward a person based on the group they belong to

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4

reference groups

groups we compare ourselves to when evaluating behavior

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5

relative deprivation

perception by a person that the amount of a desired resource they have is less in comparison to the reference group

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6

downward social comparison

when people compare themselves to those less proficient to make themselves feel better

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7

spotlight effect

overestimating others’ noticing and evaluation of our appearance and performance

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8

false consensus effect

overestimating how much other people share our beliefs and behaviors

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9

self-perception theory

people develop their attitudes by observing their own behavior and then concluding what attitudes must’ve caused it

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10

ingroup bias

the tendency for humans to be more helpful and positive towards members of their own group rather than an outgroup

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11

outgroup bias

negative categorizations, feelings, and ideas about people who aren’t part of a person’s ingroup

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12

outgroup homogeneity effect

the tendency to view an outgroup as homogeneous (same), whilst their ingroup is heterogeneous (varied)

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13

self-fulfilling prophecy

own beliefs lead you to act in ways that fulfil our expectations

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14

cognitive dissonance

mental discomfort a person experiences who holds 2 or more contradictory beliefs, ideas, or values

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15

fundamental attribution error

bias in which one only focuses on others and believes their negative behavior is due to internal attributions, whereas their positive behavior is due to external attributions.

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16

self-serving bias

bias in which one only focuses on themself and believes their negative behaviors are due to external attributions, whereas their positive behavior is due to internal attributions

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17

actor-observer bias

bias in which one believes their own negative behaviors are due to external attributions while others’ are internal attributions. in addition, they believe their own positive behaviors are due to internal attributions while others’ are external attributions

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18

norm of reciprocity

the rule that we should pay back what we receive from others

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19

foot in the door technique

getting a person to agree to a large request by first having them agree to a smaller one

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20

door in the face technique

getting a person to agree to a second, more reasonable request after asking a large one that they’ll most likely turn down.

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21

social loafing

exerting less effort when working on a task in groups than individually

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22

social facilitation

the presence of others improves one’s performance

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23

social impairment

the presence of others hinders one’s performance

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24

group polarization

the tendency for groups to make more extreme decisions than the initial inclination of each individual member

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25

group think

when a group prioritizes harmony and conformity over critical thinking and decision making

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26

bystander effect

people are less likely to provide needed help in groups than individually

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27

diffusion of responsibility

when others are present, one is less likely to take responsibility

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28

deindividuation

the loss of self-awareness and personal identity when in groups due to perceived lack of accountability

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29

social norms

the perceived informal, unwritten rules that define acceptable and appropriate actions

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30

normative influence

when people conform to social norms for fear of negative social consequence

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31

informational influence

when people conform in unclear situations because they’re unsure what to do

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32

mere-exposure effect

repeated exposures to a stimulus promotes greater liking of it.

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33

behavioral approach

the influence of behavior through observation, rewards + punishments, and making associations

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34

cognitive approach

the influence of behavior through problem solving, mental processes, and decision making

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35

sociocultural approach

the influence of behavior through societal and cultural factors: family, peers, gender, religion, and ethnicity

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36

psychodynamic approach

the influence of behavior through unconscious urges + impulses and repressed memories of childhood trauma

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37

humanistic approach

the influence of behavior through the belief that humans are inherently good and we want to reach our potential; we have self concept and free will

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38

constructive memory

using existing knowledge, schemas, and experiences to fill in gaps of information during encoding + retrieval

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39

context dependent memory

remember information best in similar locations

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40

mood congruency

information is best recalled if a person’s emotional state is similar to the emotional state/tone of processing

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41

representative heuristic

mental shortcut where someone makes a decision based on how something fits their schema or prototype of a concept

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42

availability heuristic

mental shortcut based on how readily relevant instances come to mind due to recent experiences

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43

framing

decision making can be affected by how choices are structured

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44

prototype

the best example of a category (icon of schema)

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45

reliability

consistency of scores

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46

validity

how well a tool (test) assesses what it’s accurately aimed to measure

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47

stereotype threat

when worry about conforming to a negative stereotype leads to the underperformance on a task by a member of the stereotyped group

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48

openness

receptive to new ideas, creative, and broad in interests

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49

conscientiousness

responsible, organized, and disciplined

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50

extraversion

outgoing, assertive, and talkative

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51

agreeableness

trusting, helpful, and easy-going

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52

neuroticism

emotionally unstable, anxious, and moody

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