Social 30 vocab

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ideology

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146 Terms

1

ideology

A consistent set of beliefs by groups/individuals

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2

status quo

the existing state of affairs

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3

human nature

the way people are at their core

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4

social contract

agreement by which people give up some freedom to live in a civil society

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5

radical

Favoring drastic political, economic, or social reforms, through violence if necessary

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6

reactionary

Ideological view that favors a return to a previous state of affairs

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7

fascism

an ideology based on authoritarianism and extreme nationalism

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8

private property

property owned by individuals or companies

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9

rule of law

principle that the law applies to everyone, even those who govern

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10

Economic Freedom

The freedom to own property, to make a profit, and to make choices about what to produce, buy, and sell

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11

self-interest

doing what's best for one's own personal gain

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12

public property

resources and products owned by government

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13

collective interest

  • The set of goals that members of a group have in common.

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14

norms

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15

progressive taxation

the amount you pay increases as income increases

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16

classical liberal

ideology based mostly on individualism and laissez-faire capitalism

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17

modern liberalism

ideology that brings in some collectivist principles into liberalism

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18

democratic socialist

progressive, left-wing, collectivist, but still within values of liberalism

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19

mercantilism

economic system prior to capitalism, based on increasing wealth of the state

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20

Enlightenment

intellectual movement that stressed reason and thought and the power of individuals to solve problems

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21

Laissez-faire

Idea that government should play as small a role as possible in economic affairs.

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22

proletariat

Marx's word for the working class.

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23

Luddite

a person who is averse to technology or technological progress

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24

Trade Unionist

member of a workers' association, advocate for more workers' rights

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25

Chartist

Reformers who wanted changes like universal male suffrage; the secret ballot; and payment for members of Parliament

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26

Factory Acts

English laws passed from 1802 to 1833 that limited the workday of child laborers and set minimum hygiene and safety requirements

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27

Bolshevik

original name for Communist Party in Russia

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28

Nationalization

Changing something from private to state ownership or control

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29

Quota

a fixed number of products

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30

scarcity

the limited nature of society's resources

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31

capital goods

Buildings, machines, technology, and tools needed to produce goods and services.

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32

means of production

the tools, factories, land, and investment capital used to produce wealth

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33

Privatization

To change from government ownership to private ownership

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34

speculation

the practice of making high-risk investments with borrowed money in hopes of getting a big return

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35

stock market bubble

a sharp rise in stock prices that is later followed by a sudden decline

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36

buying on margin

paying a small percentage of a stock's price as a down payment and borrowing the rest

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37

bank run

widespread panic in which great numbers of people try to redeem their paper money

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38

consumer sovereignty

the idea that buyers hold the power to influence production decisions, based on what goods and services they purchase

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39

profit motive

the incentive that drives individuals and business owners to improve their material well-being

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40

monetary policy

managing the economy by altering the supply of money and interest rates

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41

fiscal policy

managing the economy by controlling taxing and spending.

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42

mixed economy

an economic system combining private and public enterprise.

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43

market economy

capitalist system based on economic freedom and private property

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44

command economy

An economic system in which the government controls a country's economy.

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45

supply

The amount of goods available

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46

demand

the desire to own something and the ability to pay for it

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47

supply and demand

the driving force behind prices and production in a market economy

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48

demand-side economics

the idea that increasing government spending and making tax cuts help an economy

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49

inflation

A general and progressive increase in prices

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50

stagnation

motionlessness; inactivity

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51

stagflation

A period of falling output and rising prices

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52

neoconservative

ideology that emphasizes free-market capitalism, small government and trickle-down economics

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53

supply-side economics

economic philosophy based on the ideas of Hayek and Friedman

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54

trickle-down economics

theory that deregulation and tax cuts for business and the rich will benefit the rest of societ

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55

government intervention

represents the actions taken by government to affect the economy

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56

welfare state

a mixed economy, a government that assumes responsibility for the basic needs of its people

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57

deficit

An excess of federal expenditures over federal revenues.

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58

subprime mortgage

loan to a borrower with a not-so-good credit rating

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59

bailout

an act of giving financial assistance to a failing business or economy to save it from collapse.

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60

authoritarianism

A political system in which an individual or small group of individuals holds most of the power

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61

oligarchy

A government ruled by a few powerful people

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62

dictatorship

A government controlled by one person

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63

coup d'etat

A sudden overthrow of the government by a small group

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64

censorship

restricting access to ideas and information

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65

scapegoating

Blaming an innocent person or a group for one's own troubles

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66

cult of personality

the excessive adoration of a single leader.

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67

charismatic

exercising a compelling charm that inspires devotion in others

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68

controlled participation

Forcing the citizens of a nation into rallies and parades to support a regime or to vote in one-sided elections

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69

indoctrination

Teaching someone to accept an idea or principle without question

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70

Kulak

wealthy peasant in the Soviet Union in the 1930s

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71

gulag

Russian prison camp for political prisoners

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72

show trial

court hearings that are staged and meant for propaganda

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73

collectivization

a system in which private farms are eliminated and peasants work land owned by the government

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74

NKVD

Stalin's secret police

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75

Great Purge

A campaign of terror directed at eliminating anyone who threatened Stalin's power

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76

Komsomol

a communist youth organization.

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77

totalitarian

referring to a form of government in which one person or party holds absolute control

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78

hyperinflation

extremely rapid rise in prices

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79

Aryan Race

Hitlers version of the perfect people, "blonde hair and blue eyes"

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80

Fuhrer

Adolf Hitler's title as chancellor and head of state in Germany.

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81

Eugenics

science dealing with improving hereditary qualities

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82

gestapo

Nazi secret police

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83

third reich

German empire established by Adolf Hitler in the 1930s.

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84

reasonable limits

restrictions on rights the Charter of Rights and Freedoms that most people would agree with in a democratic society

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85

freedom of assembly

the right of the people to gather peacefully and to petition government

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86

assimilation

the social process of absorbing one cultural group into another

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87

imposing liberalism

Forcefully making a people adopt a system of liberal democracy

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88

enfranchisement

to admit to citizenship

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89

suffrage

the right to vote

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90

embargo

A ban on trade

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91

humanitarianism

done out of concern and to help people

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92

expansionism

a policy to expand one's sphere of influence

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93

containment

policy of resisting expansionism of rival ideology

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94

brinkmanship

the willingness to go to the edge of war to force an opponent to back down

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95

deterrence

An effort to preserve the status quo through the threat of force

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96

alignment

which side of the Cold War countries were on

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97

proxy war

a conflict in which major powers use third parties as substitutes instead of fighting each other directly

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98

sphere of influence

a country or area in which another country has power to affect developments

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99

détente

A policy of reducing Cold War tensions

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100

liberation movements

Country rebels against the country that oppressed it.

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