MIDTERM PSYCH

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Nature/Nurture Issue

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Psychology

447 Terms

1

Nature/Nurture Issue

longstanding controversy over the contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits/behaviors

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2

Charles Darwin

voyager who saw variations of species, explained this diversity was bc of natural selection

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3

Natural Selection

principle that among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will be passed on to later gens

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4

Biopsychosocial Approach

an integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social

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5

Behavioral Perspective

how we learn observable responses

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6

Biological Perspective

how the body and brain enable emotions, memories, sensory experiences

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Cognitive Perspective

how we encode, process, store, retrieve info

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Evolutionary Perspective

how the natural selection of traits has promoted the survival of genes

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9

Humanistic Perspective

how we meet our needs for love and acceptance and achieve self

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10

Psychodynamic Perspective

how behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts

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11

Social/Cultural

how behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures

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12

Theory

explains behaviors or events by offering ideas that organize what we have observed

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13

Hypothesis

testable predictions

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14

Operational Definition

describe concepts with precise procedures or measures.

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15

Replication

repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances.

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16

Descriptive Methods

describe behaviors, often by using case studies, surveys, or naturalistic observations

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17

Correlational Methods

associate different factors, or variables

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18

Experimental Methods

manipulate variables to discover their effects

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19

Case Study

a descriptive technique used to examine one individual or group in depth in the hope of revealing things true of all of us

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20

Naturalistic Observation

watching and recording the natural behavior of many individuals

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21

Longitudinal Study

research in which the same ppl are restudied and retested over a long period

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22

Cross Sectional Study

a study in which ppl of diff ages are compared with one another

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23

Survey

looks at many cases in less depth

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24

Wording Effects

subtle changes in the order or wording of questions—the way we frame a question, can have major effects

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25

Sampling Bias

we tend to generalize from samples we observe, especially vivid cases

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26

Population

the whole group you want to study and describe

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27

Random Sample

in which every person in the entire group has an equal chance of participating

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28

Correlation Coefficient

a stats measure that helps us figure how closely two things vary tgt

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29

Scatterplot

graphed cluster of dots, represents the values of two variables

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30

Correlation & Causation

correlation does not mean causation (length of marriage correlates w hair loss, but length of marriage does not CAUSE hair loss)

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31

Third Variable Problem

an observed correlation between two variables may be due to correlation btwn each of the variables and a third variable rather than any underlying relationship

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32

Illusory Correlations

the perception of a relationship when none exists

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33

Experiment

enable researchers to isolate the effects of one or more variables by (1) manipulating the variables of interest and (2) holding constant (“controlling”) other variables

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34

Experimental Group

the people who receive the treatment

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35

Control Group

do not receive the treatment

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36

Random Assignment

effectively equalizes the two groups

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37

Double Blind Procedure

neither the participants nor the research assistants who administer the drug and collect the data will know which group is receiving the treatment

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38

Placebo Effect

researchers can check a treatment’s actual effects apart from the participants’ and the staff’s belief in its healing powers

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39

Independent Variable

we can vary it independently of other factors, such as the students’ memories, intelligence, and age

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40

Confounding Variables

other factors (memories, intelligence, and age) can potentially influence the results of the experiment

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41

Dependent Variable

the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable

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42

Validity

the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to

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43

Descriptive Statistics

numerical data used to measure and describe characteristics of groups

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44

Frequency Distribution

taking random data and organizing it

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45

Frequency Polygon

type of line graph that shows frequency distributions

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46

Histogram

a bar graph depicting a frequency distribution

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47

Measures of Central Tendency

a single score that represents a whole set of scores

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48

Mode

the most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution

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49

Mean

the arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores.

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50

Median

the middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it.

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51

Positive Skew

when most of the values are small, but a few large values are increasing the mean

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52

Negative Skew

when most of the values are big, but a few small values are decreasing the mean

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53

Measures of Variation

how similar or diverse the scores are.

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54

Range

the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution

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55

Standard Deviation

a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score.

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56

Normal Curve

(normal distribution) a symmetrical, bell

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57

Inferential Statistics

numerical data that allow one to generalize—to infer from sample data the probability of something being true of a population

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58

Statistical Significance

the possibility that the difference between groups would occur by chance alone is no more than 5%

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59

Informed Consent

an ethical principle that research participants be told enough to enable them to choose whether they wish to participate

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Protection from Harm

protect the participants from physical or emotional harm and discomfort

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Confidentiality

keep information about individual participants private

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Debriefing

the post-experimental explanation of a study, including its purpose and any deceptions, to its participants

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Institutional Review Board

(IRB) an ethics committee that screens research proposals and safeguards participants’ wellbeing.

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64

Learning

the process of acquiring new and relatively enduring information or behaviors

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65

Associative Learning

learning that certain events occur tgt

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66

Classical Conditioning

A type of learning where a stimulus gains the power to cause a response

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Cognitive Learning

observational learning

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68

Stimulus

any event or situation that evokes a response

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69

Unconditioned Stimulus

stimulus that triggers a response reflexively

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70

Unconditioned Response

Automatic response to the UCS

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Conditioned Stimulus

Previously neutral stimulus that, through learning, gains the power to cause a response

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Conditioned Response

response to the CS, it is the same as the UCR

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Neutral Stimulus

a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning

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Acquisition

process of developing a learned response, Neutral Stimulus becomes Conditioned Stimulus

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Extinction

the CS loses its power to trigger a CR

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Spontaneous Recovery

Return of an extinguished classically conditioned response after a rest period, recovered response is weaker

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77

Higher Order Conditioning

aka second order conditioning, The CS becomes a UCS for another NS, weaker response

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78

Ivan Pavlov

Russian physiologist → psychologist, was studying digestion

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79

Generalization

An organism produces the same response to two similar stimuli

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80

Discrimination

An organism produces different responses to two stimuli

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81

John Watson

Founder of behaviorism, behavior based on stimulus in environment, not thoughts in mind

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82

Behaviorism

behaviors are learned through interaction with the environment

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83

Little Albert

fear generalized to other white animals

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84

Operant Conditioning

The frequency of a behavior depends on the consequence that follows that behavior

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85

The Law of Effect

Behaviors with favorable consequences will occur more frequently, behaviors followed by less favorable consequences will occur less frequently

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86

Edward Thorndike

came up with Law of Effect

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87

BF Skinner

he developed the theory of operant conditioning

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88

Operant Chamber

a chamber also known as a Skinner box, containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water

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89

Discriminative Stimulus

a type of stimulus that is used consistently to gain a specific response and that increases the possibility that the desired response will occur.

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90

Reinforcement

Any consequence that increases the future likelihood of a behavior

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91

Punishment

Any consequence that decreases the future likelihood of a behavior

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92

Positive Reinforcement

Behavior is followed by a desirable event or state

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93

Negative Reinforcement

Behavior ends an undesirable event or state

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94

Positive Punishment

Behavior is followed by an undesirable event

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95

Negative Punishment

Behavior ends a desirable event or state

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96

Immediate Reinforcement

Immediate is more effective than delayed (drugs, food)

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97

Delayed Reinforcement

being able to be more patience when receiving things.

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98

Primary Reinforcement

Something naturally rewarding (food, warmth, water)

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99

Secondary Reinforcement

Something you have learned is rewarding because it has been paired with primary reinforcement

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100

Shaping

A way to establish new behaviors, reinforce behaviors that are increasingly similar to the one you want to occur

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