unit 1 lecture notes

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what are oil immersion lenses used for?

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microbiology - dr. patton - unit 1 lecture notes & textbook questions

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1

what are oil immersion lenses used for?

they are used to improve microscope resolution. without the immersion oil, light scatters through the air

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2

do shorter or longer wavelengths equate to better resolution?

shorter

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3

who was the first to describe cells?

robert hooke

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4

what specimen was robert hooke looking at when he first identified cells?

dead cork

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5

robert hooke’s discovery of cells lead to ____ theory.

cell

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6

how is a biofilm formed?

when free-floating bacteria adhere to a surface, produce slime, & form a colony

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7

are biofilms difficult to observe?

yes

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8

what type of microscope allows a clearer 3D structural image for biofilms?

confocal

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9

what are the 4 components that all cells have?

cytoplasm, cell membrane, ribosomes, chromosomes

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10

how is light used in differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopes?

2 beams of light with different polarizations are passed through the object to increase contrast

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11

do differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopes give 2D or 3D images?

3D

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12

do differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopes look at structures within living or dead, unstained organisms?

living

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13

what are the 2 types of ribosomes found in eukaryotic cells? describe each.

free ribosomes float through the cytoplasm. fixed ribosomes are attached to the rough ER

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14

imagine an image of staphylococcus clusters. what does it mean if all of the cells in the image are purple after a gram stain?

all of the cells in the image are gram-positive

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15

does a simple microscope have a single lens or multiple lenses?

single

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16

does a compound microscope have a single or multiple lenses?

multiple

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17

what 2 things is the extracellular matrix composed of?

proteins & carbohydrates

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18

what are the 2 main purposes of the extracellular matrix?

to protect the cell & transmit signals

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19

when does a cell have an extracellular matrix? what’s the rule here?

all cells with an ECM don’t have a cell membrane, but not all cells without a cell membrane have an ECM

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20

where is the extracellular matrix found"?

it sticks out into spaces between cells

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21

what shape are eukaryotic chromosomes?

linear

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22

how many chromosomes do eukaryotic cells have? : one or multiple

multiple

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23

do bacteria or eukaryotic cells have a cytoskeleton?

eukaryotic cells

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24

what do bacteria use instead of a cytoskeleton to maintain their shape?

filaments

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25

eukaryotic cells vary greatly in structure & function :)

:)

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26

a petri dish is made of transparent plastic/glass, which allows transmission of a high proportion of ____. this transparency allows us to see through the dish to view the contents.

light

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27

a slice of iron is ____ (has opacity). light isn’t transmitted through the material, making it impossible to see through it.

opaque

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28

what is interference?

2 phases of light interact to produce patterns of interference like light or dark spots

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29

what is an example of diffraction?

sunshine spreading past the clouds

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30

what is diffraction?

bending of light

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31

a timeline shows how the shape of the tree of life has changed over the centuries.

  • linnaeus had 2 branches. what are they?

  • ernst haeckel proposed 4 kingdoms. what are they?

  • robert whittaker proposed adding a 5th kingdom. what are the 5 kingdoms now? (also added the domains of eukaryotes & prokaryotes).

animals, plants. animals, plants, protists, monera. animals, plants, protists, monera, fungi

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32

what are protists?

unicellular eukaryotes

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33

what are monera?

unicellular prokaryotes

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34

how permeable is the prokaryotic plasma membrane?

selective permeability

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35

is the fluid mosaic model a feature of the prokaryotic plasma membrane?

yes

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36

what are glycoproteins?

transmembrane & peripheral proteins with carbohydrates attached

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37

what are glycolipids?

carbohydrates attached to a lipid

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38

archaeal membranes use ____ linkages & branched chains.

ether

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39

bacterial membranes use ____ linkages.

ester

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40

what are the 2 main points of cell theory?

cells are the foundation of life & cells only come from other cells

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41

does higher energy equal higher or lower frequency?

lower

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42

the TEM image in a biofilm shows well-defined internal structures of the cells because of varying _____ levels in the specimen.

opacity

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43

STMs & AFMs allow us to view images at the ____ level.

atomic

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44

STMs & AFMs allow us to view images at the atomic level. what does STM stand for?

scanning probe microscope

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45

STMs & AFMs allow us to view images at the atomic level. what does AFM stand for?

atomic force microscope

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46

does STM or AFM have better magnification?

STM

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47

was STM or AFM used to see a pure gold surface with rows of atoms?

STM

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48

does AFM or STM use constant voltage?

AFM

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49

what do STMs & AFMs use to pass over specimens?

sharp probes

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50

are bacterial/prokaryotic ribosomes & eukaryotic ribosomes the same?

no

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51

in which type of microscopes are wavelengths used to excite fluorochromes?

fluorescence

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52

fluorescence microscopes are used in clinical microbiology :)

:)

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53

in fluorescence microscopes, secondary _____ bind well to create a better image

antibodies

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54

what are the 6 phases of mitosis?

prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, cytokinesis

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55

what is the form of the disks in the golgi apparatus?

stacks

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56

what 2 things does the GA modify?

lipids & proteins

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57

what 2 things does the GA produce? where are these things sent to?

glycolipids & glycoproteins. plasma membrane

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58

chain of events from ER to plasma membrane:

ER → ____ carry proteins → __ __→ vesicles carry ____ → plasma membrane

vesicles, GA, glycoproteins

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59

the proteins coming from the ER aren’t active until they get where?

GA

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60

how many colors are there in simple stains?

1

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61

how many colors are there in differential stains?

2

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62

are gram stains & acid-fast stains examples of simple or differential stains?

differential

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63

do you stain a specimen before or after fixing it to the slide?

after

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64

what are the 4 general types of stains?

acidic, basic, simple, differential

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65

which type of stain has a negative charge?

acidic

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66

which type of stain has a positive charge?

basic

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67

between negative & positive/basic: which stain stains only the background?

negative

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68

between negative & positive/basic: which stain stains only the object?

positive/basic

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69

what type of stain is a gram stain?

differential

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70

resolution is affected by wavelengths of light (short wavelengths = better resolution) & _____ (how lenses gather light)

aperture

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71

are eukaryotic & prokaryotic cell walls pretty much the same?

no

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72

bacteria may produce 2 types of protein appendages that aid in _____ attachment.

surface

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73

what is the term for the hundreds of short bristle-like proteins extending from the bacterial capsule?

fimbriae

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74

what is the term for the longer & less numerous appendages that connect bacterial cells?

pili

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75

when pili connect bacterial cells, what do they do?

transfer information (like DNA)

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76

who invented the simple microscope?

antonie van leeuwenhoek

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77

what is the centrosome composed of?

2 centrioles next to each other

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78

what are centrioles made of?

array of microtubules

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79

in animal cells, the centrosomes serve as microtubule-organizing centers of the ____ _____ during mitosis.

mitotic spindle

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80

some fungi are multicellular & resemble ____. they aren’t photosynthetic though.

plants

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81

yeast is a fungus. is it unicellular or multi-cellular?

unicellular

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82

do fungi exist in one type of environment or a variety of environments?

variety

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83

mold is a fungus. what 3 things does it cause? what medication does it produce?

micro toxins, decomposition, allergies. penicillin

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84

does a purple/blue stain represent a gram-positive or gram-negative cell?

gram positive

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85

does a pink/red stain represent a gram-positive or gram-negative cell?

gram negative

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86

we see because _____ interact with our eyes.

photons

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87

does the nucleoid appear in prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells?

prokaryotic

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88

the nucleoid region is a condensed area of ___.

dna

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89

does the nucleoid easily stain?

no

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90

what are the small, circular DNA in the nucleoid called? (you insert these into bacterial cells. EX: insulin)

plasmids

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91

where is chromosomal DNA found in prokaryotic cells?

nucleoid

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92

where is plasmid DNA found in prokaryotic cells?

anywhere in the cell

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93

who invented the compound microscope? this person used it to look at insects

galileo

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94

who made the swan-neck experiment?

louis pasteur

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95

describe the swan neck experiment

air could move in & out, but the air particles settled in the bend, keeping the broth sterile

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96

what theory did pasteur disprove with the swan neck experiment?

spontaneous generation

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97

who was the father of western medicine?

hippocrates

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98

who proposed that disease could be caused by small creatures?

varro

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99

who believed that diseases had natural, not supernatural causes?

hippocrates

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100

who observed that survivors of the athenian plague were immune to infection (antibodies)?

thucydides

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