personality test 2

studied byStudied by 4 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

According to Bandura, intentionality, forethought, self-reactiveness, and self-reflectiveness are components of

1 / 287

288 Terms

1

According to Bandura, intentionality, forethought, self-reactiveness, and self-reflectiveness are components of

human agency.

New cards
2

According to Bandura's theory of triadic reciprocal causation, ________ factors account for human behavior.

behavioral, cognitive, and environmental

New cards
3

Unlike intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation

is bestowed by others.

New cards
4

Which of the following is an example of vicarious reinforcement?

Maria is motivated to study harder because she wants to get the same praise from her parents that her sister got when she studied hard.

New cards
5

In Bandura's theory, the fact that people have self-reactive capacities that permit them to control their own thoughts, feelings, and actions is referred to as

self-reinforcement.

New cards
6

Bandura believes that frequent exposure to aggression and violence on television

encourages children to behave aggressively.

New cards
7

According to Bandura, the fact that tobacco executives have knowingly justified the perpetuation of harm to consumers is due to their

moral disengagement.

New cards
8

What is the difference between self-efficacy and self-esteem?

Self-esteem entails judgments of self-worth; self-efficacy entails judgments of ability.

New cards
9

Related to the concept of self-efficacy is the concept of ________, which is the belief that one can succeed by being closely interconnected with others.

communal mastery

New cards
10

Bandura has added the systematic use of ________ to the techniques of behavior modification as an aid to changing behaviors.

modeling

New cards
11

For inappropriate behaviors that are rewarding in the short run, such as smoking, overeating, or substance abuse, Bandura teaches

self-regulation.

New cards
12

The concept of locus of control is most closely associated with

Rotter.

New cards
13

A person with an internal locus of control would agree with which of the following statements?

I am the master of my fate.

New cards
14

One of the discoveries made by research with the I-E scale is that

females are more likely to be externals.

New cards
15

Rotter believes that

a more balanced belief is preferable to extreme belief in either an external or internal locus of control.

New cards
16

Alex insults Seth. Whether Seth will return the insult depends on many external and internal factors. Rotter calls this likelihood the

behavior potential.

New cards
17

In Rotter's theory, the individual's subjective evaluation about the outcome of his or her behavior is known as the

expectancy.

New cards
18

Catherine was not interested in working as a server in a restaurant until she learned that she could make much more money than she had previously expected. The amount of money to be earned, according to Rotter, represents the _________ of the job for Catherine.

reinforcement value

New cards
19

Josh considers complaining to a hotel manager about poor service he has received, but he decides not to because he thinks nothing good will come of it. According to Rotter, the component of behavior prediction that Josh's decision most clearly illustrates is

expectancy.

New cards
20

Recent cross-cultural research on locus of control (for example, Banks et al., 1991) indicates that in comparison to majority groups, minority groups

frequently test higher in external control.

New cards
21

Behavioral specificity is a key concept that has been emphasized in the theories of

Walter Mischel.

New cards
22

As his career progressed, Mischel's personality theory changed so that it placed

less emphasis on behavioral specificity.

New cards
23

What is CAPS?

A personality theory that considers both the stability of personality and the variability of behaviors across situations

New cards
24

Gregory is a child with low aggressive tendencies, whereas Joseph is a child with high aggressive tendencies. According to Mischel, in a nonstressful situation,

neither child would act aggressively.

New cards
25

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) shows that subjects with difficulty in delaying gratification have less activity in the ________ and more activity in the ________.

right prefrontal cortex; ventral striatum

New cards
26

Compared with European Americans, on whom most of the research on social learning theories has been conducted, members of many minority groups are more likely to

engage in thinking that is more circular and interpersonal.

New cards
27

According to Mischel, to understand the personality, we need to focus on individuals'

trait levels and patterns of behavioral variation.

New cards
28

Bandura's theory reflects a paradigm shift from a purely mechanical model of behavior to a perspective in which people are

agents of change.

New cards
29

Compared to earlier learning theorists, who depended primarily on principles of reinforcement to explain human behavior, Bandura views people as

agents of experience.

New cards
30

Bandura believes that most human behavior is learned through the process of

observational learning.

New cards
31

If Bandura observed a child caring for a "sick" doll in a compassionate way, his explanation of the child's behavior would probably emphasize most strongly

the child's observations of others acting in similar ways.

New cards
32

Andre sees a person put money into a soda machine, push the button to select a soda, and receive nothing. Andre decides to put his money into a different soda machine. Bandura would argue that _________ best explains Andre's behavior.

observational learning.

New cards
33

In Bandura's famous study involving a Bobo doll, young children observed an adult playing with the doll in an aggressive manner. Later, when the frustrated children were placed in a room with the Bobo doll, their

behavior was more aggressive than that of a control group.

New cards
34

Four-year-old Michael is observing other children at the playground. According to Bandura's research, the likelihood that Michael will act similarly to the other children increases if

he perceives them as similar to himself.

New cards
35

Fourteen-year-old Toby is observing the other teens in the lunchroom at her new school. According to Bandura's research, the likelihood that Toby will act similarly to the other teens increases if

she believes that acting similarly to them will lead to positive results.

New cards
36

Rita is observing a model performing a behavior. Rita is especially likely to imitate the model if Rita

has low self-esteem.

New cards
37

Jorge is watching a karate demonstration. According to Bandura, the strongest predictor for whether Jorge will learn the behavior he is watching is Jorge's

expectation that knowing these moves will be a positive addition to his life.

New cards
38

Watching professional basketball players slam-dunk the ball inspired Fred to imitate their moves on his driveway. However, he is too short, as is his vertical leap, to reach the rim. According to Bandura, Fred is lacking the means for which process of observational learning?

Motor production

New cards
39

When Alana sees a woman using sign language on television, she is able to learn many of the signs. The next day, when her mother introduces her to a deaf boy, she does not use the signs, even though she remembers them. Which of the four processes that govern observational learning is Alana missing?

Motivational processes

New cards
40

Jessica most experiences intrinsic reinforcement when she

feels good after exercising in the gym.

New cards
41

At work, Abby most experiences extrinsic motivation when she

is given a monetary bonus by her supervisor.

New cards
42

Of all the types of reinforcement that social learning theory takes into consideration, reinforcements that come from _________ are the most important.

the self

New cards
43

Which of the following does Bandura believe to be the most effective way to reduce violence in current television programming?

A privately funded monitoring system and the rewarding of appropriate shows

New cards
44

Bandura's therapeutic strategies are designed to help patients improve their sense of

self-efficacy.

New cards
45

Mark is a former group therapy client who has entered a new group not as a client per se, but as a model for other clients to follow. According to research on modeling in psychotherapy (for example, Yalom, 1995), this practice is likely to benefit

both Mark and the clients in the group.

New cards
46

Rotter's I-E scale seeks to measure

the degree to which an individual's perception of his or her locus of control is internal or external.

New cards
47

What is the acronym for the Big Five?

OCEAN

New cards
48

As part of her graduate dissertation, Nadine gave a group of personality tests to fourth-graders. Included among these tests was a measure of popularity that she herself authored. Factor analysis of her data yielded two factors: extraversion and creativity. Nadine then found that her popularity measure had a high positive correlation with the extraversion factor and a high negative correlation with the creativity factor. What do the results mean?

The popularity measure is strongly related to both extraversion and creativity.

New cards
49

Dr. Wilson is a psychologist who believes that it would be an improvement if psychologists adapted the Five-Factor Model in their understanding of certain mental disorders. Which of the following is most likely to be true regarding Dr. Wilson?

Dr. Wilson's belief is consistent with the dimensional approach to psychopathology.

New cards
50

Heritability indices for the Big Five range from

40 to 61.

New cards
51

Dr. Phong is a psychologist who strongly endorses the notion that individuals often display certain behavior patterns because those patterns have proven to solve specific problems in the survival and mating processes of the human species. Dr. Phong is best described as a(n) _________ psychologist.

evolutionary

New cards
52

Trait theories differ from type theories because trait theories involve

continuous dimensions.

New cards
53

Eysenck's use of factor analysis differed from Cattell's because Eysenck

began with a hypothesis regarding underlying variables and proceeded to test it with factor analysis.

New cards
54

Jonathan hosts parties for his friends on a regular basis. Eysenck would place this ongoing pattern of behavior at the _____ level of his hierarchy of personality.

habitual response

New cards
55

When her parents took her to the opera for the first time, seven-year-old Lois stuck her fingers in her ears and kept them there the entire evening. In Eysenck's hierarchy, this behavior would be classified as a

specific response.

New cards
56

How is Eysenck's superfactor psychoticism different from the other two superfactors?

It has no opposing dimension.

New cards
57

Following his research in the first two superfactors, Eysenck investigated a third one:

psychoticism

New cards
58

As an emotionally stable introvert, Lydia is calm, thoughtful, and passive under most circumstances. Lydia's personality corresponds to which of Hippocrates' four temperaments?

Phlegmatic

New cards
59

In Eysenck's view, what was problematic in the personality inventories that preceded criterion analysis?

They were scored by trying to interpret the answers to each question.

New cards
60

When Eysenck chose criterion analysis as the method by which he constructed his personality questionnaires, he made it clear that

he was not concerned with the underlying reasons why test-takers answered questions in particular ways.

New cards
61

Marta was involved in a car accident in which she experienced a serious head injury. The reticular activating system of her brain was affected. According to Eysenck, this injury is likely to

alter her level of extroversion.

New cards
62

Recent research on the brain has identified a _, which is associated with anxiety and neuroticism, and a ____, which is associated with extroversion and positive emotions.

behavioral inhibition system; behavioral approach system

New cards
63

Ryan experiences a very high level of fear when faced with unexpected or threatening stimuli. He is also generally anxious and rather neurotic. According to research by Jeffrey Gray, Ryan is likely to have

an overly sensitive behavioral inhibition system.

New cards
64

Eysenck believed that differences in IQs can be explained on the basis of differences in

evoked potentials.

New cards
65

What was the conclusion of the studies on discovery learning that took into consideration the students' personalities?

Extroverted students do better with discovery learning.

New cards
66

Recent research has determined that a variation in the dopamine D2 receptor gene has been linked to _; as a result, we can conclude that a person with this variation ______.

ADHD; may or may not be diagnosed with the disorder

New cards
67

Eysenck believed, and recent research has supported, that psychotics and creative achievers manifest the same cognitive style. On a word-association test, both would

give a greater number of more divergent responses.

New cards
68

Since World War II, psychology's emphasis has been shifting toward a position that stresses ________ factors; Eysenck felt that psychology should shift its emphasis back to ________ factors.

environmental; biological

New cards
69

Why did Eysenck think that it was unrealistic to believe that we will soon discover the genes that are responsible for specific behaviors?

Because he believed that many genes interact to make up each personality trait

New cards
70

How is the behavior of an obsessive-compulsive individual similar to that of a dog in a learned helplessness experiment?

Both continue their behavior after it has ceased to have any effect.

New cards
71

Cattell emphasized the ability to do which of the following in regard to personality?

Predict

New cards
72

What distinguishes source traits from surface traits?

Source traits allow for prediction; surface traits are merely descriptive.

New cards
73

Dr. Henderson is a psychologist conducting empirical research on personality variables. She asks participants to complete questionnaires that measure 100 different personality characteristics. Then she uses a statistical procedure in which she examines correlations among the 100 personality variables, with the assumption that if some of them cluster together, they may tap into the same underlying characteristic. The statistical procedure Dr. Henderson uses is known as

factor analysis.

New cards
74

Which step in the process of factor analysis is not subjective?

Extracting the factors

New cards
75

How did an analysis of language provide support for the Big Five?

It demonstrated that people describe one another in terms of a common set of five factors.

New cards
76

The more ________ an attribute is, the better we are able to use it to predict a person's behavior in a given situation.

specific

New cards
77

Which of the following is true according to Five-Factor Theory?

One's basic tendency for openness is biologically rooted and stable, but how one characteristically expresses it can change over time.

New cards
78

Which of the following is not a theoretical claim of the Five-Factor Model?

Each personality trait is allocated a different region in the brain.

New cards
79

Relative to the current DSM-IV system of classifying mental disorders, the Five-Factor Model suggests

a continuum between normality and abnormality

New cards
80

On the NEO-PI-R, Martina scores high on Extraversion, while Steve scores low on Extraversion. According to the research on the Five-Factor Model and types of psychological treatment (for example, Funder & Sneed, 1993),

group therapy may be a better fit for Martina than for Steve.

New cards
81

Tom has antisocial personality disorder. According to recent correlational research (for example, Miller & Lyman, 2003), which of the following results is most likely if Tom's Big Five personality traits are measured?

Low Agreeableness

New cards
82

Dr. Rodriguez, a psychologist, believes that people with psychological disorders simply have more or less of characteristics we all have rather than some unique or foreign characteristic in their personality. Which of the following statements is also most likely to be true regarding Dr. Rodriguez?

Dr. Rodriguez is critical of the manner in which Allport distinguished neurotic and healthy personalities

New cards
83

The Big Five factor with the largest heritability index is

openness.

New cards
84

What is the significance of the finding that some traits are genetically based?

Heredity places limits on people's potential.

New cards
85

In the film, Seligman described three types of Happy Lives, which one of the following was NOT one of the ones he described?

The affluent life

New cards
86

Which of the following has been criticized on ethical concerns because resiliency can be a virtue or a vice depending on the circumstances?

The Comprehensive Soldier Fitness Program

New cards
87

According to Rogers, the best way to understand an individual is through

his or her inner subjective experiences.

New cards
88

Rogers contended that people use the defenses of _______ and _______ when their experiences appear to be inconsistent with their self-structure.

Denial; perceptual distortion

New cards
89

According to Maslow, the number of self-actualized individuals in the population is

probably less than one percent.

New cards
90

Which term would LEAST likely be associated with the brand of therapy developed by Rogers?

Creative therapy

New cards
91

Tony is a sixteen-year-old boy who sees himself as multifaceted, with talents and interest in many areas such as music, art, writing, sports, and business. His parents, however, view him solely as a musician and refuse to acknowledge his other interests and talents. According to Rogers, this situation increases the likelihood that Tony will

experience incongruence.

New cards
92

What did Maslow find to be true about the self-actualizers he studied?

They focused on the ends rather than means.

New cards
93

Which of the following statements about twin studies of behavior genetics is true?

Monozygotic twins are genetically identical.

New cards
94

In the coming years, QTL mapping techniques should allow us to

use genetic markers as direct indicators of genotypes.

New cards
95

Which of the following is true regarding cross-cultural studies of the Big Five?

McCrae and Costa's 1997 data analysis of the NEO-PI-R concluded that personality trait structure may be universal.

New cards
96

Beginning at the bottom of the hierarchy and moving to the top, which is the correct order of Eysenck's hierarchy of personality?

Specific responses, habitual responses, generalized traits, and basic types.

New cards
97

The relationship between personality and psychopathology can be explored using Eysenck's PEN model, especially in relation to his super factor of:

psychoticism

New cards
98

Eysenck's (1952) comments on the effectiveness of psychotherapy gave a tremendous impetus to

behavior therapy

New cards
99

In the film, Maslow noted that Peak Experiences occur more frequently with people who he described as having

greater psychological health

New cards
100

In one of the videos we saw Maslow described an event from his life that destroyed the work of Freud, Watson, and Pavlov. What was that event?

Having babies

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 103 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(5)
note Note
studied byStudied by 244 people
Updated ... ago
4.2 Stars(11)
note Note
studied byStudied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 14 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 59945 people
Updated ... ago
4.9 Stars(248)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard254 terms
studied byStudied by 44 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard48 terms
studied byStudied by 22 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard24 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard167 terms
studied byStudied by 12 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard44 terms
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard113 terms
studied byStudied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard20 terms
studied byStudied by 23 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard188 terms
studied byStudied by 30 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)