IST195 Final Exam

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is e-commerce or e-business bigger?

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is e-commerce or e-business bigger?

e-commerce is a part of e-business

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venture capital

companies that raise money from a variety of investors and then invest a large sum of money in a project in its late stage. investors are looking to grow that business. plays a vital role in a startup's growth.

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angel investors

people with excess money that want to takes a risk. ex: shark tank

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types of funding

bootstrap, friends and family, loan, crowdfunding, angel investors, venture capital

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bootstrap funding

you pay out of your own pocket

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crowdfunding

kickstarter, gofundme, etc

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e-business

any process that a business organization conducts over a computer-mediated network

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e-commerce

buying and selling of goods and services over the internet. a part of e-business

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IaaS

infrastructure as a service. renting a computer on the cloud, needs additional operating power. cloud hosting; having multiple servers to run your business

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SaaS

software as a service. uses software from the cloud. user has less control over it

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EC2

IaaS for computing power

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S3

amazon web services. IaaS but specifically for storage

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product manager

works on roadmap and features that will provide the most value to customers. creates a vision of where the product is going (product development)

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project manager

works directly with the customer, manages relationships and expectations with clients. creates timeline for sprints

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agile software development life cycle (SDLC)

instead of betting everything on a "big bang" launch, an agile team delivers their work in small, but consumable, increments. work in sprints, allowing the team to learn through experiences.

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central processing unit (CPU)

the brain of any computing device aka the semiconductor. processes all the information. how fast a computer is dependent on how many CPUs there are.

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IPv4

the original internet protocol (IP) schematic when the internet was first created

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a legitimate IPv4 address is made up of

4 sets of numbers, each between 0 and 255. ex: 128.5.12.89

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IPv6

the solution for when the internet ran out of numbers for IPv4

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careers that exist within IT jobs

technical, operational, managerial

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technical jobs

web/software developer, systems admin, network architect, information security, data scientist, database admin

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operational jobs

help desk, computer support specialist, user experience/graphic design, tech sales/account management, quality assurance

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managerial jobs

IT manager, applications project manager, product manager, systems/support manager, CIO/CTO director

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the great resignation

the trend of employees voluntarily leaving their jobs, from spring 2021 to the present, primarily in the US. people want to work from home more and were chasing higher paying jobs because the market was hot. has changed the IT industry globally.

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quiet quitting

people are only doing the bare minimum in their jobs instead of going above and beyond what is expected of them

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4 soft skills to be successful

  1. self awareness

  2. listen and communicate

  3. work with different types of people

  4. empathy: infer what others are thinking and feeling

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NFT

non-fungible token. a unique digital collectible that has value to it. uses blockchain to act as a non-duplicable digital certificate of ownership

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blockchain

a decentralized network of computers

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smart contracts

establishes the terms of an agreement that are executed as code running on a blockchain. follows simple "if/when... then..." statements

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benefits of smart contracts

  1. speed, efficiency, accuracy

  2. trust and transparency

  3. security

  4. cuts out intermediaries

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characteristics of blockchain

secure, open source, decentralized

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1000 bytes

1 kilobyte

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1000 kilobytes/1 million bytes

1 megabyte

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1000 megabytes/1 billion bytes

1 terabyte

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1000 terabytes/1 trillion bytes

1 petabyte

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8 bits

1 byte

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a bit is either

1 or 0

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what is an operating system?

provides user interface, manages resources, runs applications, file management

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types of operating systems

  1. embedded; ex: smartwatches, traffic lights, elevators, iOT

  2. standalone; ex: desktop operating systems (macOS, Windows)

  3. mobile operating systems; ex: iOS 16, Android 12

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founder of Windows/Microsoft

Bill Gates

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founder of MacOS/Apple

Steve Jobs

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founder of Unix

Ken Thompson

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founder of Linux

Linus Torvalds

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open source OS

Linux

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cryptography

based on math. uses keys to encrypt messages

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steganography

hides a message within a message. no encryption, just hiding. need to know what to look for in order to find the message

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types of cryptography

symmetric and asymmetric

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symmetric encryption

uses the same key to encrypt and decrypt

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asymmetric encryption

uses two keys (public and private)

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asymmetric decryption: jeff wants to send bob an encrypted message, so he uses _____ to encrypt and bob uses _____ to decrypt

bob's public key; bob's private key

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RAM

random access memory chip that holds programs and data that the computer is presently processing. very volatile

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what is the fastest memory source?

cache level 1 and level 2

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USB

universal serial bus. can connect up to 127 additional devices together with a single connector

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USB-C

new standard that uses USB 3.1; reversible. Apple was forced by the EU to change to this standard

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USB 3.0 speed

5 gigabytes/second

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USB 3.1 speed

10 gigabytes/second

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CHIPS and Science Act of 2022

biden passed a law that will invest money into the domestic manufacturing of semiconductors in the US. presently, the largest manufacturer of semiconductors is Taiwan

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Micron

Micron will open a semiconductor factory in Syracuse, bringing in high paying jobs and more jobs overall in CNY

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CCPA

residents of CA have the right to see what info is collected on them and ask for it to be deleted. the right to not have your data shared. structured after the GDPR

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ADPPA

currently in Congress. covers all americans so that our data is protected and private

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GDPR

privacy law within the EU. the best privacy protection for consumers that exists globally

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div

a box element that changes the style of a set of character or region. controls the margin and padding. not good for changing the style of a set of characters because it is a block (not inline), so it offsets everything in the next line

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span

inline element that changes the style of a set of characters

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every packet contains

source IP address, destination IP address, acknowledgement (TCP), sequence number, data within the packet

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caesar shift

skip the key number of letters forward

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<p>numbers as a key</p>
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<p>numbers as a key</p>

numbers as a key

uses a complex number as the key. for each letter, skip the first number forward. then repeat for each number in the key per letter.

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words as a key

put the word at the beginning of the alphabet and eliminate the word's letters in the alphabet. don't repeat letters--should be 26 letters total

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converting to binary code

256, 128, 64, 32, 16, 8, 4, 2, 1 ignore leading zeros pay attention to capital letters vs lowercase letters

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app tracking transparency

apple's privacy update now requires apps to ask users if they can track you across apps and websites owned by other companies. 3rd party cookies track you and deliver targeted ads across multiple platforms

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facebook algorithm

a program/code that determines what shows up in our news feed

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facebook inventory

how much content: how many friends you have, how many times they've posted since you last logged in

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facebook signals

considerations of content: how many interactions there are within a post. shows what is more popular

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active signals

commenting, sharing, reacting

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passive signals

clicking, watching, viewing/hovering; aka usual content consumption

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demotion signals

false news (AI and 4rd party fact checkers), click gap (disproportionate amount of links from FB vs the organic web), clickbait, engagement bait, sensationalized health content

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facebook predictions

based on signals; how likely you are to interact with a certain post

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misinformation

happens accidentally

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disinformation

deliberate intention to deceive

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operator precedence

parentheses, negation, percent, exponents, multiply, divide, add, subtract, compare

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functions

built into excel: sum, count, average, if

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formula

evaluated by PEMDAS

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conditional formatting

sets rules for cell formatting

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Vlookup

vertical look up; retrieves info from an excel database based on a supplied instance of a unique identifier

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delimited files

separates values in each row with a specific character

ex: separate each student's grades with a comma

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pivot tables

enables someone to quickly, accurately, and easily summarize and analyze large amounts of data

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first party data

data directly collected from a consumer

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second party data

data exchanged between two companies

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third party data

data bought from third parties

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data brokers

enriches data from other companies

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3rd party cookies

track users from site to site and deliver targeted ads to these users

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structured data

highly organized and manageable

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unstructured data

structure that is not formally defined, like PDFs

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semi-structured data

hybrid of structured and unstructured, like emails

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geospatial data

includes information on positions

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Vs of big data

volume (scale), variety (diff. forms), velocity (analysis of streaming data), veracity (uncertainty)

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questions to ask about big data

what data do we have? how can we use it? what other data should we have? how can we drive value from data?

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descriptive analytics

what happened and why

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predictive analytics

what is likely to happen and why

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discovery analytics

find something important without asking the question

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prescriptive analytics

culmination of all 3 that shows what the best solution is

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