Big 'Ol World History Study Guide (Part 1)

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in a feudalist society

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I did the 2nd half of this by speech to text, so it's a little wonky near the ned

101 Terms

1

in a feudalist society

people were given land and protection by people of higher rank and worked and fight for them in return and classes were arranged in order of rank, like a pyramid

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2

when muslim forces threatened europe in 732 AD, what happened?

Charles martel met the muslims at the battle of tours in france and stopped islamic spread to europe

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3

what is a fief

an estate of land granted by a lord to a vassal in return for allegiance or service

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4

what is the purpose of a castle

Defense against enemies and military security

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5

The code of chivalry was?

the honor code of knights

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6

Manorialism

was a system of agricultural production in the medieval period and allowed peasants to farm the lords land in return for the lord’s protection

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7

During the middle ages, farmers developed a new way to increase productivity and decrease the threat of famine, what was this?

A heavier plow and a 3 field system.

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8

Serfs and peasants

shared their harvests with the lords and knights, lived in small and poor houses, and rarely lived past 40

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9

Knights

started training at as early as 7, had long and hard training, had training based towards strength, weaponry, fitness, and horsemanship

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10

a mock battle between knights

tournament

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11

during the battle of tours, the following are examples of cultural diffusion:

cavalry, stirrups, and saddles

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12

What does NOT describe europe during 500 AD and 1000 AD

it was peaceful

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13

the medieval period was

a transition between ancient and modern times

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14

the result of invasions on europe include

isolated communities and the authority of monarchs was weakened

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15

what does NOT describe feudalism

everyone in a feudalist society shared the same job

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16

siege warfare

was a military operation involving surrounding a town or castle in hopes of capturing it

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17

Chain mail is NOT described by

being difficult to wear due to the inflexibility of the material

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18

the knight’s coat of arms was?

was designed to identify the knight

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19

stoats

were used to make fur coats for the royal family

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20

the two latin terms composing “medieval” are

medium and aevum

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21

what was the 3 field system?

where 2 fields were planted and a third stared dormant until next season

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22

bloodletting was

cutting a vein in an attempt to drain the body of illness

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23

what is NOT true of the bubonic plague

it was not contagious from one person to another

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24

what is NOT true of body collectors

they delivered medical supplies to homes of the ill

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25

what is NOT true about the crusades

they resulted in the decline of european power, wealt, and population due to immense financial and physical strain the crusades placed on western europeans

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26

what was something that DID NOT help improve the status of europe in 1050 to 1270?

the spinning jenny

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27

how did the transformation of western europe begin

it began with a holy war over jerusalem

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28

the 3 largest monotheistic religions in the world

judaism, christianity, and islam

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29

jerusalem was important to the jews because

it was the sight of the original temple to god built by king solomon

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30

the seljuk turks were

muslims who conquered jerusalem in 1000 AD

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31

how did pope urban II respond after emperor alexius called for help to defend his empire from the turks ?

he called a conference in clermont, france in 1095 and assembled a multitude to partake in the crusades and take back the holy land

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32

the crusades:

a series of military expeditions by europeans to recover the holy land, they sparked the transformation of medieval europe into a brilliant civilization, and there were 9 crusades

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33

they were called the crusades because

the word “crux” meaning cross

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34

Saladin

was the leader of of the muslim forces that captured jerusalem in 1187

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35

Richard I

was a king of england that allied with germany and france to help assemble an army for the 3rd crusade, he also signed a truce with the muslims regarding jerusalem

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36

the crusades did NOT impact western europe in this way:

towns began to decline and gov. was decentralized due to the heavy cost of war

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37

why did the portugese consider the mediterranean sea a bad route to the far east?

the ottomans controlled it, and muslims charged high tariffs

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38

henry the navigator

started a navigation center in portugal to build ships, he believed sailing around africa was an alternative route to the far east, and he trained and hired crews in sea navigation skills

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39

black slavery was introduced to europe by

portugal landed in africa and the tribes would offer slaves for whatever the portugese had, portugese would also just take black tribe members as slaves against their will, and american slaves would be occassionaly transported to europe

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40

all are true of christopher columbus:

he believed the earth’s circumference was only 18,000 miles, his explorations were funded by spain, he map did not included south and north america.

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41

vasco de gama’s voyage was a pyrrhic victory because

he returned with lots of spices, but many of his men died

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42

what was the line of demarcation of 1493

it was a line from the North pole to the south pole that gave spain and portugal specific exploration regions

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43

in 1494, the treat of tordesillas

gave portugal the right to settle the eastern coast of south america

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44
<p>what does this image represent?</p>

what does this image represent?

the old world

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45

This Portuguese explorer sailed for Spain, scaled the east coast of South America, and found a narrow strait near the top of the continent. His ship was the first to make it all the way around the world. A strait now named after him.

Ferdinand Magellan

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46

This explorer named the pacific ocean

Ferdinand Magellan

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47

This explorer sailed for Spain, and landed in Mexico in 1519. He was offered gifts of Gold by Montezuma

Hernando Cortez

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48

A piece of low lying land, once reclaim from the sea, or a river, protected by Dikes

Polder

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49

In 1608 Samuel de Champlain, a French map maker founded the first permanent French settlement in the Americas at this location

Quebec

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50

What term can be defined as a Spanish conquer?

Conquistador

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51

This explorer invaded the incarnation of current de Perú in 1532 slaughter the Incas and eventually ruled over them

Francisco Pizarro

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52

The capital of the Netherlands

Amsterdam

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53

The first Englishman to sail around the world

Sir Francis Drake

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54

The first permanent English settlement in North America is located here

Jamestown

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55

A former slave trader, who became a Christian pastor, and who wrote the song amazing Grace

John Newton

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56

all all of the following are true of the line of demarcation

Gave Spain control of lands west of the line, it gave Portugal control of the lands east of the line, it was established by Pope Alexander VI in 1493

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57

The treaty of Tordesillas

Move the line of demarcation 8° to the west

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58

Portugal colonized all of the following regions

Current de Brazil, Asia, and Africa

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59

The pacific ocean was so named because

The tranquil, calm nature of the water

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60

The term “ circumnavigation” can be defined as

Circling the world

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61

Magellans voyage is approved all the following

The world is round, the oceans of the world are connected, and the lanbs discovered by Columbus were not part of Asia

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62

Why were early explorers trying to find a route through the north and South America continent rather than ceiling all the way around them

Early explorers were trying to find a shorter route to the far east, and they were trying to avoid the perils that lay at the coast of South America

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63

All of the following word encountered by sellers of Cape Horn

Strong, westerly winds, frigid water, temperatures, stray icebergs

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64

What was the name of the canal that opened in 1914 in Central America and significantly reduce traveling time of ships?

The panama canal

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65

Spanish conquistadors came to the Americas for all of the following reasons

To serve God, share Christianity with the world, and to find wealth

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66

How are the Aztecs of Mexico treated by the early Spaniards?

The Spaniards slaughtered the Aztecs

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67

Why did millions of native Americans died during the first 50 years of Spanish rule

The Native Americans were exposed to European diseases for the first time

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68

The Netherlands in the 1600s can be described by all of the following

The area had few natural resources, the area had limited farmland, and the Netherlanders viewed commerce has the key to their survival

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69

The Dutch East India Company

What is a group of Dutch merchant to gather together to form a corporation for the purpose of sailing to the east Indies and expanding trade with the Netherlands

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70

The Dutch West India Company

Sailed west from the Netherlands, and establish colonies in the Americas

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71

The boers

We’re Dutch farmers, who established refreshments stations on the coast of Africa

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72

European Christians (the pilgrims) establish Plymouth in the in current day Massachusetts, because

They wanted religious freedom

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73

all of the following are true of the triangular trade

Ships sailed a triangular formation between Europe, Africa, and the Americas. Europeans picked up African slaves on their way to the Americas. Europeans purchased sugar, molasses, cotton and tobacco in the Americas to take to Europe.

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74

The middle passage was

And enslaved persons journey from the West Coast of Africa to the land of the Americas. It was the “ second leg” of the triangular trade

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75

During the middle ages, which religious organization held dominant influence over people in Western Europe?

The Catholic Church

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76

Which Eastern Byzantine emperor called for help from the western region of France, when Jerusalem was taken over by Muslims?

Alexis I

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77

To whom did the Bistantine emperor send a letter to in Claremont France, asking for help to defend his country against defeat

Pope urban II

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78

The crusades failed to win, permanent Christian control of Palestine. However, there were several major development of Western Europe, all of the following are impacts of this

Western Europeans learned many new ideas, such a shipbuilding, and how to use magnetic compass. Europeans were introduced to many new trade goods, while on crusade like silk, cotton and spices western Europeans were introduced to new forms of art and literature from ancient scholars

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79

What word comes from the French word for “rebirth” and refers to be Europe’s renewed interest in classical ideas and culture, following the dark middle ages

Renaissance

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80

In which country in Europe did renaissance thinking begin

Italy

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81

Renewed interest in intellectual resources, such as classic literature, let to a new secular intellectual movement, known as

Humanism

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82

Who said “knowing yourself is the beginning of all wisdom“

Aristotle

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83

This is true of the renaissance Period

Renaissance ideas focus more on the dignity and worth of an individual person than on the religious ideas of the medieval period

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84

A polymath is

A master in many different subjects

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85

All of the following result of the invention of the printing press in the 1450s

Books and texts could be copy more quickly. It was invented by Johannes Gutenberg ideas could be disseminated to other areas at a faster pace

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86

“Linear perspective” is

A technique in art that allows the artist to convey depth by showing forms diminishing in size as they recede from the viewer

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87

Filippo, Brunelleschi

rediscovered linear perspectiv

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88

The renaissance ideas of Italy again to filter north word to France, England, the Netherlands and other European countries. The following are four ways these ideas spread.

Trade, war, the printing press, and travel

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89

Albrecht, Dürer

What is a German engraver an artist who went to Italy to study under experience artists

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90

A ‘ polymath’, who was enthralled with the human body, and made many sketches of human anatomy

Leonardo da Vinci

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91

A renaissance physician, who revolutionized the study of biology and the practice of medicine by his careful description of the anatomy of the human body

Andreas Vesalius

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92

Who was the father of anatomy? How did he obtained the cadavers on what she did research?

Andreas Vesalius. He was able to get the executed bodies of criminals.

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93

All of the following are true of the renaissance Period.

Scholars challenge, long standing church, traditions. Individuals were encouraged to think for themselves. Renaissance ideas, focused more on the dignity, and worth of the individual person than on the religious ideas of the medieval Period

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94

All of the following are true of the reformation period

The renaissance values of humanism and secularism stimulated widespread criticism of the Catholic Church, is excessive gain of money. Educated Europeans, desired a change in the Catholic Church, his practice of Christianity. Mini intellectuals condemned the sale of indulgences by the pope

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95

What were the indulgences of the Catholic Church?

They were certificates or cards bought from the Catholic Church, that would grant access into heaven

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96

Martin Luther

Believed that a person could be forgiven Simply, by faith in and acceptance of God’s mercy and love

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97

what does reformation mean?

Reformation refers to changes in the Catholic churches teachings

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98

The “95 theses”

were critical statements, opposing church policies – including the sale of indulgences

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99

When the Catholic Church split the new form of Christianity, that evolved was named

protestantism, because the new beliefs protested the old ones

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100

This accurately describes the contradiction in beliefs between the Catholic Church and Protestantism during the 1500s

Catholicism stressed faith. The good works in the importance of church teaching as a spiritual guide, while Protestantism emphasize salvation by faith alone in the Bible, as the only source of religious truth.

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