269-291 Psych

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103 Terms

1

personality

the reasonably stable patterns of emotions, motives, and behavior that distinguish one person from another

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psychodynamic theory

Freud's perspective, which emphasizes the importance of unconscious motives and conflicts as forces that determine behavior

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3

id

the psychic structure, present at birth, that represents physiological drives and is fully unconscious

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4

ego

the second psychic structure to develop, characterized by self-awareness, planning, and delaying of gratification

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5

superego

the third psychic structure, which functions as a moral guardian and sets forth high standards for behaviors

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6

Ego and Superego

are apart of the conscious portion of the iceberg

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7

id

described by Freud as chaos

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8

the id

follows the pleasure principle

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9

ego

guided by the reality principle

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10

ego

provides the conscious sense of self and takes into account what is practical with what is urged by the id

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11

superego

functions according to the moral principle

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12

psychosexual development

the process by which libidinal energy is expressed through different erogenous zones during different stages of development

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13

oral stage

the first stage of psychosexual development, during which gratification is hypothesized to be attained primarily through oral activities

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14

anal stage

the second stage of psychosexual development, when gratification is attained through anal activities

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15

Eros

aims to preserve and perpetuate life, fueled by psychic energy labeled libido

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16

libidinal energy

involves sexual impulses

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17

oral traits

include dependency, gullibility, and excessive optimism or pessimism

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18

oral activities

smoking, overeating, alcohol abuse, and nail biting

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19

anal stage

begins in the second year

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20

anal retentive traits

excessive use of self-control: perfectionism, strong need for order, and exaggerated neatness and cleanliness

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21

phallic stage

the third stage of psychosexual development, characterized by a shift of libido to the phallic region

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22

oedipus complex

a complex of males; desire to possess the mother sexually and to exclude the father, a part of the phallic stage

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23

electra complex

a complex of females; sexual attraction to the father conflict of the phallic stage

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24

latency

a phase of psychosexual development, characterized by repression of sexual impulses

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25

genital stage

the mature stage of psychosexual development characterized by preferred expression of libido through intercourse with an adult of the other gender

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26

analytical psychology

Jung's psychodynamic theory, which emphasizes the collective unconscious and archetypes

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27

collective unconscious

Jung's hypothesized store of vague memories that represent the history of humankind

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28

electra complex and oedipus complex

resolved by the age of 5 or 6

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29

anal expulsion traits

let it all hang out, carelessness, messiness, sadism

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30

personal unconscious

contains repressed memories and impulses

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31

archetypes

all power god, young hero, fertile nurturing mother

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32

inferiority complex

feelings of inferiority hypothesized by Adler to serve as a central motivating force

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33

creative self

according to Adler, the self-aware aspect of personality that strives to achieve its full potential

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34

individual psychology

Adler's psychoanalytic theory, which emphasizes feelings of inferiority and the creative self

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35

psychosocial development

Erikson's theory of personality and development, which emphasizes social relationships and eight stages of growth

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36

ego identity

a firm sense of who one is and what one stands for

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37

S. Freud

proposed stages of psychosexual development

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38

E. Erikson

proposed stages of psychosocial development

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39

trait

a relatively stable aspect of personality that is inferred from behavior and assumed to give rise to consistent behavior

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40

psychoanalytic theory

focuses on reasons that people develop certain traits

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41

yellow bile

associated with a choleric (quick tempered) disposition

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42

blood

associated with sanguine (warm cheerful) disposition

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43

phlegm

associated with a phlegmatic (sluggish, calm, cool) disposition

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44

black bile

associated with a melancholic (gloomy, pensive) temperament

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45

Depression

excess of black bile

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46

Hippocrates

greek physician that believed traits were embedded in bodily fluids

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47

Charles Spearman

mathematical technique of factor analysis

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48

neuroticism

also called emotional instability

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49

choleric type

extraverted and unstable

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50

sanguine type

extraverted and stable

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51

phlegmatic type

introverted and stable

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52

melancholic type

introverted and unstable

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53

introversion

a trait characterized by intense imagination and the tendency to inhibit impulses

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54

extraversion

a trait characterized by tendencies to be socially outgoing and to express feelings and impulses freely

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55

5 basic personality factors

extraversion, neuroticism, conscientiousness, agreeableness, and openness to experience

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56

American, German, Portuguese, Israeli, Chinese, Korean, Japanese, Philippine people

five factors define personality structure of

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57

Five Factor Model

Big Five

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58

political liberals

tend to score higher on openness to experience

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59

political conservatives

score higher on conscientiousness

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60

40-60%

heritability of extraverted personalities

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61

Extraverts

dopamine tends to be higher in

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62

social cognitive theory

a cognitively oriented learning theory in which observational learning and person variables, such as values and expectancies, play major roles in individual differences

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63

social cognitive theory

focuses on learning by observation and on the cognitive processes that underlie personal differences

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64

situational variables

rewards and punishments

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65

person variables

knowledge and skills, ways of interpreting experience, expectancies, emotions, and self-regulatory systems and plans

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66

true

We cannot predict behavior from situational variables

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67

self efficacy expectations

beliefs that we can accomplish certain things

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68

positive self efficacy

high self esteem and achievement motivation

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69

observational learning

foundations of social cognitive theory

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70

psychodynamic theorists and trait theorists

focus on internal variables such as unconscious conflict and traits to explain and predict behaviors

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71

learning theorist

emphasizes importance of environment conditions, or situational variables

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72

social cognitive theory

does not account for self awareness

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73

humanism

the view that people are capable of free choice, self- fufillment, and ethical behavior

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74

existentialism

the view that people are completely free and responsible for their own behavior

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75

gender-typing

the process by which males and females come to display behavior patterns consistent with stereotypical masculine and feminine gender roles

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76

self actualization

in humanistic theory, the innate tendency to strive to realize one's potential

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77

gender-schema theory

a cognitive view of gender typing that proposes that once girls and boys become aware of their anatomic sex, they begin to blend self expectations and self esteem with the ways in which

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78

self-actualization

requires taking risks

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79

unconditional positive regard

a persistent expression of esteem for the value of a person but not necessarily an unqualified acceptance of all of the person's behaviors

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80

conditional postive regard

judgment of another person's value on the basis of the acceptability of that person's behaviors

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81

conditions of worth

standards by which the value of a person is judged

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82

humanistic existential perspective

focus on the importance of personal experience

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83

Overcompensation

when all behavior is aimed at overcoming a perceived weakness

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84

Wilmher Rudolph

a black woman who had polio who was told she would never be able to walk again, she walked again and won gold medals for track at the olympics: successful overcompensation

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85

Compensation

behavior emphasizes what we’re good at

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86

Rationalization

no matter how evil the behavior is people justify it ex: slavery

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87

Reaction formation

person goes in the absolute opposite direction: a minister with gay tendencies will say they will go to hell for being gay

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88

projection

The most important defense mechanism of all is

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89

projection

is when we attribute our own characteristics to others: trusting person will believe people are trusting like them

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90

Carl Rogers

each of us has an actual self and an ideal self

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91

individualists

people who define themselves in terms of personal traits and give them priority to their own goals

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92

sociocultural perspective

the view that focuses on the roles of ethnicity, gender, culture, and socioeconomic status in personality formation, behavior, and mental processes

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93

collectivist

people who define themselves in terms of relationships to other people and groups and give priority to group goals

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94

acculturation

an issue from sociocultural perspective

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95

acculturation

the process of adaptation in which immigrants and native groups identify with a new dominant culture by learning about that culture and making behavioral and attitudinal changes

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96

validity

in psychological testing, the degree to which a test measures what it is suppose to measure

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97

reliability

in psychological testing, the consistency or stability of test scores as from one testing to another

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98

standardization

in psychological testing, the process by which one obtains and organizes test scores from various population groups, so that the results of a person's completing a test can be compared to those of others of the same gender, age group, and so on

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99

objective tests

tests whose items must be answered in a specified limited manner; tests whose items have concrete answers that are considered correct

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100

MMPI Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Invetory

contains hundreds of items presented in a true-false format

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