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Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development

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Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development

Sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operations

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sensorimotor stage

in Piaget's theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities. develop sense of object permanence

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preoperational stage

in Piaget's theory, the stage (from about 2 to 6 or 7 years of age) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic. do not pass conservation tests because they have centration and a lack of reversibility. egocentric: do not pass three mountains task.

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concrete operational stage

in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (from about 7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events. difficulty about thinking abstractly or reasoning hypothetically

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formal operational stage

in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (normally beginning about age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts

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short-term memory (STM)

A limited-capacity store that can maintain unrehearsed information for about 20 to 30 seconds. holds around 5-9 chunks of information.

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working memory

the manipulation of the short-term memory in order to use it for the task you are doing

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Atkinson-Shiffrin Model

a memory system that contains: sensory memory, short-term memory and long-term memory

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long-term memory

the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences.

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explicit long term memory

also called declarative memory, it can be verbally stated and is knowing "what." episodic vs semantic

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episodic long-term memory

memories of actual events or things you can visual the environment/situation of

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semantic long-term memory

facts and knowledge, but you do not know how/why you know it.

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implicit long-term memory

expressed behaviorally. knowing "how". procedural memory, classical conditioning, priming

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procedural implicit long-term memory

skills, knowing how to do something

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classical conditioning implicit long-term memory

associative learning, operant learning

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priming implicit long term memory

exposure to things influences behavior

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amnesia types

retrograde and anterograde

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anterograde amnesia

cannot form new memories after the "accident/event"

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retrograde amnesia

inability to retrieve information before a particular date/time

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encoding

the process of transforming what we perceive, think, or feel into an enduring memory

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storage

retaining encoded information over time

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retrieval

pulling memories out of storage. depends on cues/hints. similar context helps. for studying, if you study in a lot of different places, you have more retrieval cues

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how to recall what you know

recall, recognition, reaction time

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memory failures

transience, absentmindedness, blocking, memory misattribution, suggestibility, bias, persistence

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transcience

forgetting over time

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absentmindedness

lapses in our attention that result in memory failure

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interference types

proactive and retroactive

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proactive interference

old learning gets in the way of the new

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retroactive interference

new learning gets in the way of the old

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blocking

failure to recall something even though you know it, like when it is at the tip of your tongue

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schema

organized knowledge structure/mental model that we've stored in memory

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mnemonics

memory aids that use vivid imagery/stories to memorize long strings of info

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Sperling's Iconic Memory Experiment

-people couldnt remember all of the letters in the display

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-later he cued only one row and people could remember the entire row

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-capacity is essentially unlimited, but sensory memory fades very quickly

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misinformation effect

incorporating misleading info into one's memory of an event

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flashbulb memory

highly detailed, vivid memory of an emotionally significant event

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language

system that relates sounds or gestures to meaning

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generativity

the desire, in middle age, to use one's accumulated wisdom to guide future generations

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components of language

phonemes, morphemes, syntax

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phoneme

smallest unit of sound, like bah vs pah

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morpheme

smallest unit that carries meaning, like a word

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syntax

sentence structure

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theories of language development

behaviorist, nativist, interactionist

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behaviorist: language development

language is learned through reinforcement and nurturing.

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issues: parents respond to content more than grammar, it doesn't explain why kids know words they've never heard before, and speech errors reflect overgeneralization of grammatical rules

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nativist: language development

innate mental structures that guide language acquisition. language is learned easier in critical period. noam chomsky

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interactionist: language development

innate capacity for language interacts with experience. supported by creation of sign language by Nicaraguan children when growing up in a deaf school.

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categorical speech perception

tendency to perceive as identical a range of sounds that belong to the same phonemic class

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perceptual narrowing for phonemes

infants tune into the sounds of their native language. lose ability to see contrasts in other languages by 10-12 months.

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early speech production

birth: crying

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1 month: cooing

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6 months: babbling

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1 yr: words

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telegraphic speech

early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram—"go car"—using mostly nouns and verbs.

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Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis

language shapes thought

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decision-making

evaluating alternatives and making choices among them

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availability bias

items that are more readily in memory are judged as having occurred more frequently

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framing effects

changing how an issue is presented can change people's decisions

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loss aversion

people want to avoid losses more than they want to achieve gains

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sunk-cost fallacy

decisions are tainted because of emotional investment we have accumulated

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anchoring bias

tendency to fixate on initial information, even if that anchor is arbitrary or random, and insufficiently alter our judgements away from that anchor

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confirmation bias

searching for confirming evidence instead of disconfirming evidence

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developmental psychology

scientific study in changes of behavior from birth until death

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major themes of developmental psychology

nature vs nurture

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perceptual development: hearing

all sounds that reach the womb are low-pass filtered (no high frequencies). newborns prefer their mother's voice to other women, their mother's language to other languages, and books/songs they heard in utero

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perceptual development: taste

mother's amniotic fluid is affected by what she eats. baby develops affinity for those foods.

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infant testing methods

we must infer since they cannot tell us these things. infants will orient to stimuli they find interesting. they prefer stimuli they have heard/seen before (familiarization). if they are repeatedly exposed to stimulus to point of boredom, they will prefer novel stimuli (habituation).

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Fantz experiment

infants will look at interesting stimuli longer than non-interesting stimuli.

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three mountains task

child faces a model of 3 mountains and a doll is placed at a different angle. when told to draw/describe what the doll sees, the child describes what THEY see, not realizing the doll's view is different.

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criticisms of piaget

underestimated children's abilities, vague in respect to processes/mechanisms of change, doesn't account for variability in performance, undervalues SES

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theory of mind

people's ideas about their own and others' mental states—about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts, and the behaviors these might predict. also empathy

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social development: delayed gratification

marshmallow test: 2/3 of 4 yr olds fail after 15 min. those who wait have shown higher education, SAT scores, better self-control, etc. Lower SES families have no association with outcome, possibly bc of scarce resources, so they take immediately.

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74

social psychology

concerned with the way individual's thoughts, feelings, behaviors are influenced by others

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social cognition

processes by which people come to understand others

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how skilled are we in evaluating others?

very skilled. 57% correct in thin-slice judgements.

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schema+stereotypes

schema: mental model/representation that organizes info about things/person/event

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stereotype

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stereotype: widely held beliefs that people have certain characteristics bc of membership in a certain group

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stereotype threat

fearing identifying with a negative stereotype about own group

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stereotypes can be

inaccurate, overused, self-perpetuating, automatic

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impression formation task

illusory correlation: when people estimate that they have encountered more confirmation of an association between social traits they have actually seen

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ex. minority groups and negative events are attention-grabbing, so it skews our frequency perception

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implications of impression formation task

schemas/stereotypes are often helpful, but can bias us

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how to reduce negative impact of stereotypes

friendship, contact, stereotype results

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86

attributions about behavior

attribution: inference about cause of person's behavior

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fundamental attribution error

tendency to overestimate dispositional influences on our behavior, underestimate situational influences on someone else's behavior.

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  1. actor-observer effect, conformity

adjusting one's behavior to match what others are doing

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obedience

following an authority figure

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90

Solomon Asch Experiment

70% of subjects conformed to a wrong answer rather than giving a correct answer

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what influences conformity?

presence of an ally, if the majority can hear your answer, how many of the majority there are

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92

Milgram's Obedience Study

study of the phenomenon of obedience to an authority figure, examined the effects of punishment on learning (shock treatment for mistakes, 65% shocked dangerous amounts when ordered)

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variations of Milgram

closeness of confederate, closeness of experimenter, respectability of environment, number of other teachers

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Stanford Prison Experiment

Philip Zimbardo's study of the effect of roles on behavior. Participants were randomly assigned to play either prisoners or guards in a mock prison. The study was ended early because of the "guards'" role-induced cruelty.

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95

Deindivualization

being in a group makes you lose self-awareness, making you do things you wouldn't normally do

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96

bystander effect

failure to offer help to people in need when other bystanders are not doing anything either/when there are others present

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Kitty Genovese

Murdered outside apartment- prompted to investigate bystander effect due to diffusion of responsibility

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98

Latane and Darley

diffusion of responsibility and pluralistic ignorance

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diffusion of responsibility

people feel a diminished sense of responsibility for their actions when surrounded by others acting the same way

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pluralistic ignorance

majority of group members privately reject a norm but incorrectly assume that most others accept it, so they go along with it

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