Chapter 6 - bones and skeletal tissues

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Movement, support, protection, blood production, mineral regulation

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Movement, support, protection, blood production, mineral regulation

Functions of skeletal system include?

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movement

working with the muscular system

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support

makes up framework of body

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protection

vital organs such as brain and heart

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calcium

mineral regulation

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206

skeletal system has how many bones?

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ligaments, cartilages, bursae and tendon sheaths

joints/articulation of skeletal system include?

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ligaments

hold bones together

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cartilages

hold bones together; reduce friction between bones

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bursae and tendon sheaths

structures found in areas around joints to help reduce friction

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4

classification of bones by shape/structure has how many groups?

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long, short, irregular, and flat

what are the classifications of bones by shape/structure?

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long

shape/structure only in limbs

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humerus, radias, ulna, metacarpals, phalanges, femur, tibia, fibula, metatarsals

examples of long shape/structure

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1 diaphysis, 2 epiphyses (1 proximal and 1 distal)

what are the main parts of long bone?

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diaphysis

relatively thick compact bone tissue superficially and spongy bone tissue deep

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periosteum

fibrous connective tissue membrane on surface

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medullary/marrow cavity

contains yellow bone marrow; endosteum lines

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epiphyses

spongy and compact bone; articular/hyaline cartilage at joints

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tarsals, carpals

examples of short bone include?

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similar to epiphysis long bone

(spongy and compact bone; articular/hyaline cartilage at joints)

structure of short bone is similar to?

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vertebrae

examples of irregular bone?

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similar to short bones

structure of irregular bone

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sternum, some skull bones

flat bone example

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dipole between inner and outer plates

structure of flat bone

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3 groups

bone markings are organized into how many groups?

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projections

provides sites where muscles and ligaments attach

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tuberosity

large, rounded projection coming from main part of the bone; often has rough texture

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Ischial tuberosity that is part of/on coxal/bone

example of tuberosity projection

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iliac crest on coxal bone

example of crest projection

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crest

large ridge on bone

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trochanter

large, irregular shaped projection from main part of the bone

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femur bone

trochanter are only found on which bone

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2 trochanters; greater and lesser trochanter

femur bone has how many trochanters? what are they?

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line

small ridge on a bone

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intertrochanteric line

example of line projection

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in between 2 trochanters on a femur

intertrochanteric line is located where?

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tubercle

small rounded projection

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adductor tubercle on femur

example of tubercle projection

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epicondyle

raised area on or above condyle

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condyle

rounded surface at a joint

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medial epicondyle on femur

example of epicondyle projection

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spine projection

sharp or pointed projection

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ischial spine on coxal/hip bone

example of spine projection

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process

general term for projection; most common marking in this group

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spinous process on vertebra

example of a process?

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head

expanded end of bone with narrow neck

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on rib, on femur

example of head

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Facet

smooth, flat surface at joint

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on head of rib

example of Facet

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condyle

rounded articular projection at joint

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on mandible, on femur

example of condyle surface?

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Depressions and openings

usually for blood vessels and nerves to go through

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  1. Projections

  2. surfaces that form joints

  3. Depressions and openings

what are the groups of bone markings/bone parts?

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Foramen

most common marking in depressions and openings group?

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Foramen

round or oval opening through a bone

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infraorbital foramen, mental foramen of skull

example of foramen?

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Groove/sulcus

elongated depression (where blood vessels or nerves might lie)

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on inner surface of mandible

example of Groove/sulcus

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Fissure

slitlike/narrow opening; irregular shaped opening in a bone

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inferior and superior orbital fissures of skull

example of a fissure

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Notch

indentation at the edge of a bone

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mandibular notch

example of a notch

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Fossa

basin or sinklike depression in a bone

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inner base of skull

example of Fossa?

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meatus/canal

similar to foramen; round oval in shape; longer passageway through bone

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internal acoustic meatus of skull

example of meatus/canal

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sinus

cavity/space within a bone

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paranasal sinus of frontal bone

example of sinus

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2; Compact Bone and Spongy Bone

how many types of bone tissue? what are they?

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osteons

long, straight cylinders in compact bone

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compact bone

which bone is mainly made up of long, straight cylinders called osteons?

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include central canal with blood vessels and nerves

what do osteons include?

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central canal

going down through middle of osteon is?

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osteons, concentric lamellae, lacunae, canaliculi, and osteocytes

compact bone is made up of?

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concentric lamellae

bony matrix layers around central canal

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lacunae

spaces at lamellae borders

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canaliculi

small canals

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circumferential and interstitial lamellae

what are outside the osteons?

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circumferential lamellae

lamellae that is around bone circumference?

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interstitial lamellae

lamellae that is between osteons

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2 main parts; trabeculae and marrow space

spongy bone has how many parts? what are they?

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trabeculae

bony fiber network with interstitial lamellae

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osteoblasts

bone building cells

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osteoclasts

bone destroying cells

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marrow space

red bone marrow filled with bone building cells (osteoblasts) and bone destroying cells (osteoclasts) at edge of trabeculae and marrow space

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Intramembranous ossification and Endochondral ossification

what are the two types of Bone Formation/Ossifiaction?

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Intramembranous ossification

bones formed from fibrous connective tissue membrane?

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mainly forms flat bones of skull

Intramembranous ossification mainly forms what bones?

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mesenchymal cells

main cells of fibrous connective tissue membrane are

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collagen fibers in matrix

which fibers can you find in mesenchymal cells ?

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they develop where blood vessels grow into membrane

where do ossification centers develop?

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osteoblasts

when new bone is formed what develops?

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osteocytes develop from osteoblasts

osteocytes develop from?

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spongy bone is formed first, compact bone formed later

which bone is formed first?

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red bone marrow is going to form

what forms within spongy bone?

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woven spongy bone with osteocytes

when does periosteum form?

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forms plates

compact bone forms?

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in dipole

red bone marrow forms where ?

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Endochondral ossification

bones formed from hyaline cartilage; most bones formed from this ossification

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