Pharmacology Module 2

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Bactericidal

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141 Terms

1

Bactericidal

Antibiotics that Kill bacteria.

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2

Can bactericidal be reversed?

no

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3

How does bactericidal kill bacteria?

Inhibit cell wall formation

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4

Does bactericidal rely on the host immunity?

no

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5

Bacteriostatic

Antibiotics that prevent bacterial growth

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6

Is bacteriostatic reversible?

yes

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7

Does bacteriostatic rely on host immunity?

yes

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8

How does bacteriostatic affect bacteria?

Inhibits DNA replication and protein synthesis

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9

Is penicillin an example of bactericidal or bacteriostatic?

bactericidal

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10

Is cephalosporin an example of bactericidal or bacteriostatic?

bactericidal

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11

Is carbapenem an example of bactericidal or bacteriostatic?

bactericidal

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12

Is monobactam an example of bactericidal or bacteriostatic?

bactericidal

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13

Is vancomycin an example of bactericidal or bacteriostatic?

bactericidal

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14

Is Tetracyclines an example of bactericidal or bacteriostatic?

bacteriostatic

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15

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16

Is clindamycin an example of bactericidal or bacteriostatic?

bacteriostatic

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17

Is fluroquinolones/ metronidazole bactericidal or bacteriostatic

bactericidal

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18

Is sulfonamides/trimethoprim bactericidal or bacteriostatic

bacteriostatic

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19

Is Macrolides an example of bactericidal or bacteriostatic?

bacteriostatic

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20

When is broad spectrum used?

before culture and sensitivity

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21

Broad spectrum targets a

wide range of bacteria

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22

What is the problem with broad spectrum?

It can cause more adverse effects

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23

When is narrow spectrum used?

after culture and sensitivity

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24

Narrow spectrum targets

specific groups of bacteria

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25

What is the benefit of narrow spectrum?

less adverse effects

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26

How can antimicrobial resistance be prevented?

use antibiotics only when prescribed, follow dosing, don’t overuse

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27

When is prophylactic treatment used?

When trying to prevent the client from getting sick

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28

The general adverse effects of antibiotics are

GI disturbance, oral thrush, diarrhea, C.Diff

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29

Define culture

a patient sample that is grown within a laboratory setting to help identify which bacteria is present

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30

Define sensitivity

bacterial culture is subjected to a variety of antibiotics to determine which are most effective against the pathogen present

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31

What drugs have a PCN allergy contraindication?

Penicillin, cephalexin, meropenem, aztreonam

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32

What drugs can cause photosensitivity?

sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin

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33

What drugs require peak and trough monitoring?

Vancomycin & Gentamicin

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34

What are the causes of oral candidiasis (thrush)?

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35

What are treatments for oral candidiasis (thrush)?

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36

What antibiotics have pregnancy as a contraindication?

Meropenem, Sulfamethoxazole/Trimethoprim 1st tri, Nitrofurantoin 3rd tri, Gentamicin, Tetracycline, Ciprofloxacin

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37

What is the mechanism of action for penicillin?

bactericidal

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38

What is the indication for penicillin?

bacterial infections (gram + cocci), strep throat, dental procedures

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39

What are the adverse effects for penicillin?

nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, allergic reaction

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40

What are the contraindications for penicillin?

PCN allergy, renal disease

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41

What are special considerations for penicillin?

Administered parenterally, monitor up to 30 min, BUN/ Creatinine

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42

What is the mechanism of action for cephalexin?

bactericidal

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43

What is the indications for cephalexin?

broad spectrum, skin infections

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44

What are the contraindications for cephalexin?

allergy, severe PCN allergy

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45

What are the adverse effects for cephalexin?

nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, supra-infection

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46

What special considerations does cephalexin have?

Monitor in people with renal impairment and bleeding disorders

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47

What is the MOA of Meropenem?

bactericidal, destroys bacterial cell wall

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48

What is the indication for meropenem?

broad spectrum, peritonitis, UTI

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49

What are contraindications for meropenem?

severe PCN allergy, pregnancy

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50

What are adverse effects of meropenem?

allergy, GI upset, supra-infection

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51

What are special considerations for Meropenem?

IV only

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52

What is the MOA of Aztreonam?

bactericidal, inhibits cell wall synthesis

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53

What are the indications of aztreonam?

UTI, sepsis, respiratory infections, intra-abdominal infections, surgical infections

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54

What are the contraindications of aztreonam?

severe pcn allergy, renal and liver disease

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55

What are the adverse effects of aztreonam?

GI upset, diarrhea, allergy

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56

What special considerations does aztreonam have?

parental administration only

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57

What is the MOA for Vancomycin?

bactericidal, inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis

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58

What is the indication for Vancomycin?

staph. infections, MRSA, C.DIFF

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59

What is the contraindication for Vancomycin?

allergy

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60

What are the adverse effects of vancomycin?

Red man syndrome, nephrotoxicity, ototoxicity, phlebitis

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61

What are special considerations to be taken with vancomycin?

monitor peak and trough, administer over 60 min to avoid RMS, Monitor BUN/Creatinine, Monitor hearing acuity

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62

What is the MOA of fosfomycin?

inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis

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63

What is the indication for fosfomycin?

upper UTI

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64

What are the contraindications of fosfomycin?

renal and liver disease

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65

What are the adverse effects of fosfomycin?

GI upset, diarrhea, headache, vaginitis, drowsiness, allergy

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66

What are special considerations for fosfomycin?

single dose for lower UTI, take on empty stomach

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67

What is the MOA for tetracycline?

Inhibits bacterial protein synthesis

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68

What is the indication for tetracycline?

broad spectrum, acne vulgaris, dental infections, STI, H. Pylori, Lyme disease, PCN allergy

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69

What are the contraindications of tetracycline?

pregnancy, children under 8, kidney and liver disease

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70

What are the adverse effects of tetracycline?

tooth discoloration, photosensitivity, esophageal ulceration, hepatotoxicity, supra-infection

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71

What are special considerations for tetracycline?

don’t take with dairy, take on empty stomach

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72

What is the MOA for erythromycin?

bacteriostatic, inhibits bacterial protein synthesis

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73

What is the indication for erythromycin?

strep throat, PCN allergy, Diphtheria, STI

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74

What are the conrtaindications for erythromycin?

QT prolongation, liver disease, caution with warfarin

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75

What are the adverse effects of erythromycin?

QT prolongation and possible Torsade’s de Pointe, GI upset, Ototoxicity

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76

What are special considerations with erythromycin?

monitor INR if used with Warfarin

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77

What is the MOA for Gentamicin?

bactericidal, disrupts protein synthesis

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78

What is the indications for gentamicin?

infections, UTI, Intra-abdominal infections, conjunctivitis

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79

What are the adverse effects of gentamicin?

ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity, dizziness, nausea, vertigo

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80

What are the special considerations of gentamicin?

monitor peak and trough, monitor hearing, monitor creatinine

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81

What are the contraindications of gentamicin?

pregnancy and renal failure

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82

What is the MOA of ciprofloxacin?

inhibit DNA replication

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83

What is the indication for ciproloxacin?

broad spectrum, UTI, Pneumonia, osteomyelitis, soft tissue infection, anthrax exposure

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84

What ist eh contraindications for ciprofloxacin?

under 18, pregnancy, use cautiously in geriatrics, renal disease, warfarin

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85

What are the adverse effects of ciprofloxacin?

GI upset, Supra-infection, Tendonitis/ Rupture, photosensitivity, thrush

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86

What are special considerations for ciprofloxacin?

risk of achille’s tendon rupture, monitor INR if used with warfarin

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87

What is the MOA for metronidazole?

Disrupts cellular DNA

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88

What is the indication for metronidazole?

C.diff

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89

What is the contraindication for metronidazole?

alcohol, seizure disorder, warfarin

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90

What are the adverse effects of metronidazole?

disulfiram-like reaction if combined with alcohol, metallic taste

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91

What are the special considerations for metroidazole?

If client is on warfarin, monitor INR

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92

What is the MOA of sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim?

bactericidal, folic acid blocker

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93

What is the indication for sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim?

UTI, Pneumonia, otitis media

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94

What is the contraindication of sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim?

sulfa drug allergy, renal failure, avoid in 1st trimester

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95

What are the adverse effects of sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim?

steven-johnsons syndrome, C.Diff, bone marrow suppression, photosensitivity

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96

What are the special considerations for sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim?

monitor/report any skin rash while taking, avoid sun, monitor CBC

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97

What is the MOA for nitrofurantoin?

bacteriostatic, damages DNA

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98

What is the indication for nitrofurantoin?

lower UTI, recurrent UTIs

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99

What is the contraindications for nitrofurantoin?

renal disease, avoid in 3rd trimester

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100

What are the adverse effects of nitrofurantoin?

GI upset, anorexia, bone marrow suppression, hypersensitivity reaction

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