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What are the 5 components of ultrasound imaging?

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215 Terms

1

What are the 5 components of ultrasound imaging?

Pulser, transducer, receiver, memory, display

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2

and the 6th one that coordinates the other?

Master synchronizer

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3

What is the goal of the complements?

To image

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4

How many PZT elements does a continuous wave use?

2

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5

Which component controls PRF, PRF, amplitude of pulse, frequency for CW, & firing pattern for array transducer?

Pluse wave

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6

What is the rule concerning power and gain?

Minimize power and max gain

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7

Another name for acoustic power?

output power, transmit, outgain

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8

Which components converts ultrasound to electrical voltage and sends it to the receiver?

crystal aka transducer

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9

In correct order, what are the 5 functions of the receiver?

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10

Which receiver function for the user have NO control over?

Demodulation

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11

Which receiver function makes up for echo information that is decreased due to attenuation of sound?

Compensation

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12

Which receiver function squeezes the signal amplitude into a narrower range?

compression

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13

Which receiver function eliminates the smallest amplitude voltages?

Rejection

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14

Which receiver function boosts the signal?

Amplification

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15

What receiver function handles smoothing and rectification?

Demodulation

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16

What does smoothing do?

avg out the signal

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17

What does rectification do?

Turn neg signal to positive

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18

Between higher and lower dynamic ranges which has the higher contrast?

Lower

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19

What helps to reduce noise?

Rejection

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20

What 2 functions control the brightness of the image on screen?

gain, power

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21

Another name for the scan converter is

Memory

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22

Random acess memory

digital

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23

silicon wafer

analog

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24

8 bits is equal to 1

Byte

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25

What are the two possible bits

0=off and 1=on

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26

What is the term pixel short for

picture element

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27

What happens to spatial resolution if the number of pixels increase

Increases

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28

A 5 bit system will have how many shades of grey

2^5

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29

On a newer machine, like a logic 9, are TGC’s pre or post processing?

Both

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30

On a logic 9, is gain pre or post processing?

Both

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31

On a logic 9, is write zoom pre or post processing?

Pre

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32

On logic 9, is labeling pre or post processing?

Both

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33

On a logic 9, are the calipers pre or post processing?

Post

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34

On a logic 9, is depth pre or post processing?

pre

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35

What does the edge button do?

smooth out the edge

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36

Low persistence us for__ moving structures like the ______

fast, heart

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37

Frame averaging is also known as ________

persistence

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38

What is the filling in technique called the fills in a missing pixels brightness based on average brightness of the surrounding pixels?

Interpolation

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39

What another name for an old school tv monitor?

CRT (cather ray tube)

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40

Electronic beam direction in fixed pattern of horizontal sweeps across screen (left to right and top to bottom) what is the pattern called?

Raster scan

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41

A bean if electronics is directed at a light emitting phosphor on a screen and causes the screen to change frequency?

False

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42

In diagnostic imaging, how many frames per second for a flicker free image?

30

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43

What kind of display writes the odds lines and the evn lines second?

Innerlaced

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44

What kind of display wires the line in sequences?

non-interlaced

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45

What is the difference between HD and Standard display monitors?

Better Special resolution, more lines more pixles

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46

What adjusts the screen brightness level?

brightness

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47

What adjusts the range of echo brightness to darkness (black and white)

contrast

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48

What kind of printer uses heat sensitive paper to preserve the image and may degrade with time?

thermo printer

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49

PACS is an acronym for

picture archiving and communication system

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50

When Frame Per Sec increase in temporal resolution better or worse?

better

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51

Name 4 factors competing for time

SMIL: sector size, multiple focal zone, image depth and line density

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52

What 2. things are needed for blood to flow?

Path to travel and pressure of gradient

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53

In the body pressure is created by what?

Heart, gravity, calf( second heart)

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54

What variable do we use for flow volume rate?

Q

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55

Resistance to motion because of two moving objects touching each other is?

Friction

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56

The fluid’s thickness or stickiness is?

Viscocity

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57

The tendency of an object to maintain its “status quo” is

enurtia

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58

What kind of flow do we need to use poiseuille’s equation?

laminar

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59

If you increase resistance

flow rate decreaes

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60

Define each variable

P1, P2= pressure gradiant, prox and dist.

r=radius

L=length

N= viscosity

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61

Write poiseuille equation and what does it predict?

Q=P/R; it predicts laminar flow(parabolic is another name)

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62

Diaphragm descends and lower extremity venous flow decreases

inspiration

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63

The weight of the column of blood from the heart to the point where the pressure is measured is

Hydrostatic pressure( it’s just gravity)

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64

At how many frames can a human eye detect?

<16

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65

What regulates PACS and what it is overall good for?

DICOM and teleradiology

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66

When we use a doppler instrument in US, what is the source of sound, the receiver of sound, and the reflector of sound?

Transducer, transducer and red blood cells

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67

Write the 2 equations we have for the doppler shift( short)

Reflected frequency- Transmit frequency

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68

In US, what does a negative doppler shift mean? positive shift?

Moving away from source; moving towards

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69

What is the difference between speed and velocity?

rate at which an object is moving along a path, while velocity is the rate and direction of an object's movement.

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70

Cosine of 90 degrees=

Cosine of 0 degrees=

Cosine of 60 degrees=

Cosine of 180 degrees=

0 no shit

+1

1/2

-1 or 1

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71

The max doppler shift will occur at what degree

0 or 180

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72

No shift will occur at what degree

90

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73

How do you know if you have positive shift on a color doppler and pulse doppler?

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74

What is a disadvantage of CONTINUOUS WAVE?

Range ambiguity

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75

What’s a disadvantage of pulsed wave?

aliasing

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76

What is another US Doppler instrument not already mentioned?

Color doppler, power doppler

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77

What is the nyquist limit?

1/2 PRF; is limit at which alising will occur

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78

What is aliasing

Machine will represent positive shift as negative shift

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79

How do you know if you have a positive shift on a color doppler and pulse doppler?

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80

What are the 5 ways to eliminate aliasing?

Chose shallower sampling depth

increase velocity scale

adjust baseline shift

Choose lower frequency transducer

Use CW instead

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81

What’s the name of the complex mathematical process analyzes the signal and provides quantitative data on different reflector velocities making up the signal?

FFT

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82

Name 3 types information PULSED DOPPLER can provide:

Velocity of flow

direction of flow

range of frequencies

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83

How to calculate Pulsatility and Resistivity Index

PI= max velocity-min velocity/ mean velocity

RI= Max-min/Max

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84

Axes table

knowt flashcard image
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85

What is superimposed on a two dimensional grayscale image presenting flow information?

Color doppler

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86

If nothing has been inverted, what does the color red represent?

Positive shift

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87

The color blue?

Negative shift

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88

What refers to the number of ultrasound pulses per line of color?

Packet size

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89

Which packet size has better temporal resolution?

smaller

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90

Scan converter

aka memory

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91

What is a bit? 8 bits is__

A binary #, One byte

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92

(0,1,0,0,1,0)

6 bit

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93

Image is made of pixels, and pixels are bit

True

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94

The more pixles=

the better the spacial resolution

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95

More bits=

More shades of gray, more contrast

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96

As more pixel is present

Pixel density increases

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97

PREPROCESSING

  • PREPROCESSOR ALLOWS CHANGE, ALTERATION, OR MANIPULATION OF ECHO SIGNALS PRIOR TO BEING STORED IN COMPUTER MEMORY

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98
  • Low persistence for fast moving structures (heart)

  • High persistence for slow moving structure (testes)

true

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99

PERSISTENCE

  • A TYPE OF FRAME AVERAGING USED TO MAKE THE IMAGE APPEAR SMOOTHER

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100

fill in trepollation

If there is pixel missing from a image the machine avg out all the surrounding pixel to fill in the image

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