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1

Enthalpy

delta H, affected heat, release, gained

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2

Entropy

delta s, measure of disorder or chaos

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3

Equal

heat gain is _______ heat lost

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4

Break

energy needed to _______ bonds

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5

released

Energy __________ to form bonds

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6

0.00

delta H must equal ______ for any element

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7

-delta H

exothermic, heat is released favorable

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8

delta H

endothermic, heat is absorbed unfavorable

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9

Delta S universe

delta S system + delta S surroundings

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10

delta S surroundings

-delta H/T

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11

delta S

unfavorable, nonspontaneous

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12

delta S

favorable spontaneous

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13

negative

products always _______ when forming bonds

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14

Fusion

melting, exothermic

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15

Vaporization

boiling, endothermic

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16

Sublimation

solid to gas, endothermic

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17

Deposition

gas to solid (exothermic)

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18

Gibbs free energy

ΔG = ΔH - TΔS

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19

k>1

______ when delta G < 0 because products are favored

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20

thermodynamically favorable

spontaneous reaction delta H < 0 and delta S > 0

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21

Low Temps

-delta H, -delta S

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22

High Temps

+delta H, +delta H

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23

False

[ ] are equal

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24

True

Rates are equal

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25

Keq, Kc, Kp

rxn @ equilibrium and constant temp, Products/Reactants, no units, Only gases only changed by temp

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26

Inverse

1/Keq

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27

Doubling

[Keq]^2

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28

Forward

Products have higher concentration, Keq > 1

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29

Reverse

Reactants have higher concentration, Keq < 1

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30

Q

reaction quotient, all cases not equilibrium

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31

Equilibrium

A reaction will always shift toward

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32

k > Q

more reactants, shift right, [R] down [P] up

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33

K < Q

more products, shift left [R] up [P] down

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34

Molarity or Pressure

Ice tables always stand for

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35

I

initial molarity

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36

C

Change

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37

E

equilibrium

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38

5% rule

x/initial [ ] * 100

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39

Soluble

Compounds with Group 1 metals

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40

Soluble

NH4+ Ammonia

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41

Soluble

NO3-

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42

Molar Solubility

the number of moles of solute in 1 L of a saturated solution (mol/L)

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43

Soluble

Larger Ksp

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44

Insoluble

Smaller Ksp

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45

Q < Ksp

unsaturated more salt will dissolve

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46

Q = Ksp

saturated, equilibrium

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47

Q > Ksp

supersaturated solution, precipitate will form

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48

Pressure Changes

Higher gas moles creates higher pressure, rxn shifts in opposite of the pressure change

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49

Increased Pressure

rxn shifts towards fewer moles of gas

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50

Decreased Pressure

ran shifts towards more moles of gas

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51

H

forward with increased temp, increased Keq

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52

H

Forward with decreased temp, increased Keq

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53

precipitate

Ions with smaller Ksp _____ first

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54

H

More favorable process

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55

Entropy

A measure of disorder or randomness, + H more favorable, substances always tend towards randomness

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56

Dissolution

the driving force behind ______ is Entropy

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57

Delta G

delta H - T delta S

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58

Rxn occurs

-delta H and positive delta S creates - delta G

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59

Rxn doesn't occur

+delta H and Positive delta S creates + delta G

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60

delta S

dissolution is always

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61

Endo

Heat + R --> P

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62

Exo

R ---> P + heat

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63

Collision Theory

For a reaction to occur, the particles must collide, they must collide with the appropriate orientation, and they must collide with sufficient energy.

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64

Increased Concentration

Faster reaction rate, increases molecules and increases collisions

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65

Increased Temperature

Faster reaction rate, greater pressure so more collisions

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66

Increased Pressure

Faster reaction rate from more collisions and a greater surface area

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67

Increased Surface Area

Faster reaction rate from more collisions

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68

Catalysts

Faster reaction rate by creating new pathways or elementary steps and doesn't change

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69

Rate= ∆[ ]/∆t

Rate Equation

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70

Relative Rate

Balanced Equation provides...

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71

K

Constant

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72

reactants

The rate law is written as a function of [ ] of all

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73

0 order

rate is always constant, [A]t = -kt + [A]0 Concentration over time is the linear graph

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74

1st order

rate is doubled when [A] is doubled, power of 1, ln[A]t = -kt + ln[A]0, ln concentration over time is linear

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75

2nd order

rate is quadrupled when [A] is doubled, power of 2, 1/[A]t = -kt + 1/[A]0

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76

M-¹(overall -1) * time-¹

Units

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77

Half Life

t 1/2 the time required for the concentration of a reactant to decrease to one half of the original concentration

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78

1st order

A constant half life can be justification for determining

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79

Swamping

one reactant doesn't change and is high in excess.

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80

0.693/k

1st order half life equation

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81

Reaction Mechanisms

Must match balanced equation of reaction and match experimentally rate laws

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82

Slow

rate law determined from ______ elementary step

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83

[Reactants] or Catalysts

Rate law can only contain

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84

∆H positive

endothermic

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85

∆H negative

exothermic

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86

Slow Steps

have a higher bump or highest Activation energy

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87

Two bumps

Two step equation graphs into

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88

Empirical Formula

1.) find mass % 2.) Convert to g 3.) Convert to moles 4.) divide by smallest mole, repeat for each element of compound

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89

Molecular Fomula

1.) DIvide Molar mass of compound by empirical molar mass 2.) multiply equation by whole number

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90

Percent Composition

the mass % of each element in compound, covert % to moles from grams

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91

conductivity

how many mobile ions are present, if there are ions present

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92

Dilution Equation

M1V1=M2V2

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93

Ideal Gas Law

PV=nRT

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94

P and V

Inverse p1V1=P2V2

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95

P and T

Direct P1/T1 = P2/T2

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96

V and T

Direct V1/T1 = V2/T2

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97

Synthesis

A+B-->AB

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98

Decomposition

AB->A+B

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99

Single Replacement

A + BC --> B + AC

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100

Double Replacement

AB + CD = AD + CB

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