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Elasmobranchs

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138 Terms

1

Elasmobranchs

sharks, skates, rays, oldest and largest vertebrates

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2

Agnatha

jawless fish: lamprey and hagfish

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3

Chondrichthyes

cartilaginous fish (sharks, rays)

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4

Osteichthyes

bony fish

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5

Agnatha characteristics

-muscular circular mouth with rows of teeth -long cylindrical body-lack paired fins and scales

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6

Hagfish

-feed on dead and dying fish-burrow in soft sediment-make slime for defense

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7

Lamprey

-large portion of life in the sea, return to freshwater to breed-sucker like mouth for consuming blood, tissue and body fluids

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8

Chondrichthyes and Osteichthyes characterists

-highly efficient gills-scales-streamline-paired fins-variety of jaw and feeding types-lateral line and sensory organs

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9

Ratfish

-deep water-mouth with plate like grinding teeth-tiny tail-venomous spine-head clasper-no scales-skin flap covers 1 gill slit-fused jaw-heterocercal tail-fin rays (tiny support rods) in the fins

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10

elasmobranch characteristics

-some travel up rivers -heterocercal tail-2 dorsal fins-carnivorous or planktonic-350 extant species-cartilage skeleton-paired fins-spongy cartilage snout-well-developed teeth with movable jaws -5 to 7 gill slits-male have claspers

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11

Spiracles

opening on head used to bring water directly in for respiration without opening the mouth

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12

Chondrichthyes Breathing

-ram ventilation-buccal pumping-spiracle breathing-obligation ram ventilators

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13

Chondrichthyes scales

placoid scales made for drag and noise reduction

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14

lateral line

a visible line along the side of a fish consisting of a series of sense organs that detect pressure and vibration.

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15

Ampullae of Lorenzini

sensory organs in the head of cartilaginous fishes to detect electrical charges, important in detecting prey

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16

shark liver

no swim bladder so large liver rich in oil

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17

Demersal

live on the bottom

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18

Neritic

Swim next to continental shelf

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19

oceanic pelagic

swim in open blue water

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20

people affect sharks

-disastrous fishing -fished for oil -skin is turned into leather -skin also used as sandpaper -fished for fin soup

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21

Skates and rays

-dorsoventrally flattened bodies -spend much time on the bottom covered in sand -large flattened teeth -fleshy long whip-like tails -enlarged Pectoral Fins

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22

skates

-dorsoventrally flattened body -have a fleshy tail without a spine -always lay egg cases -demersal and feed on molluscs -spiracles behind eyes -found at depths greater than 4000 meters

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23

rays

-rays pectoral fins are expanded into wings and entire body is dorsoventrally flattened -long whip like tails, spines at the base of the tail with poison gland

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24

manta ray

plankton feeder in mid-water; gill rakers used for filtering water

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25

electric rays

have large electric organs on each side of head

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26

claspers

-male shark -pair of organs between pelvic fins that transfer sperm -rolls of cartilage that become stiffened with calcium

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27

Cloaca

females have a cloacal opening

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28

Vivipary

live birth with placenta

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29

Ovipary

egg laying

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30

Ovovivipary

development of an embryo within an egg inside the mother's body but without the embryo receiving any nourishment from the mother

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31

Osteichthyes characteristics

-gills for respiration -hinged jaws allow for a variety of different ways of feeding -homoceral tail

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32

homocercal tail

symmetrical tail

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33

lobe-finned fish

Fleshy, lobed, paired fins, which are joined to the body by a single bone

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34

ray-finned

-may contain only spiny rays, only soft rays, or both -stiff and sharp -soft, flexible, segmented, and may be branched

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35

Gill arch

Supports the structure of the gill

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36

gill rakers

On the forward surface of the gill arch

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37

gill filaments

trail behind the gill arch

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38

operculum

covers gills and provides protection

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39

swim bladder

used for buoyancy control

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40

shark buoyancy

Large oil filled liver

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41

Sharks

-Tend to sink when not in motion -Use pectoral fins to aid in lifting

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42

ctenoid scales

thin flexible and overlapping scales in bony fish that have tiny spines

<p>thin flexible and overlapping scales in bony fish that have tiny spines</p>
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43

Cycloid scales

Thin, large, round, arranged in an overlapping pattern

<p>Thin, large, round, arranged in an overlapping pattern</p>
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44

Countershading

Ventral (belly) side is lighter than the dorsal side.

<p>Ventral (belly) side is lighter than the dorsal side.</p>
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45

cryptic coloration

Camouflage; makes an organism difficult to spot.

<p>Camouflage; makes an organism difficult to spot.</p>
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46

disruptive coloration

bars or stripes that help break up the silhouette

<p>bars or stripes that help break up the silhouette</p>
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47

Eye spot mimicry

Circular patterns near caudal fin -Confuses predator who are not sure where the head is

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48

warning coloration

advertise themselves as dangerous

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49

fuisform

Fast moving, predators, long, streamlined, very little flexibility

<p>Fast moving, predators, long, streamlined, very little flexibility</p>
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50

Compressiform

compressed from side to side, quick bursts of speed over short distance

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51

Depression

Flattened top to bottom, live on bottom, slow, flap fins up and down

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52

Filliform

Elongated, live in soft sediment, slow, slither

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53

Pectoral fins

Side fins on fish

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54

Pelvic fin

Underside of a fish

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55

dorsal fin

top fin

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56

Adipose fin

The fatty fin on some species of fish, on top

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57

anal fin

an unpaired fin located on the underside of a fish posterior to the anus.

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58

caudal fin

tail fin

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59

Homoceral

Symmetrical

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60

Heterocercal

asymmetrical

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61

homocercal rounded

-large amounts of surface area allows sharp turns and quick starts -creates drag - fish tires easily

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62

homocercal truncate

-allow short bursts of speed to escape predators or constant slow swimming -less drag -bottom dwelling fish

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63

homocercal, forked

-constant swimming over long distances, reduces drag -open water fish -do not need speed to feed or for protection

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64

homocercal lunate

-half moon shaped -fast moving -less drag, great acceleration, reduced maneuverability

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65

Heterocereal tail

-medium speed -provides lift when no air bladder -reduced maneuverability

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66

Swimming Patterns

-fish have an S-shaped pattern -bony fish fins are flexible and used for maneuverability -slower swimming species, forward movement is provided by pectoral fins -fins may be flexible and highly modified for camouflage

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67

acquiring and processing food

-mouth structure reveals dietary preferences of fish -beak (fused teeth) allows for these fish to scrape algae and other organisms off of hard surfaces -tube like mouth to feed on corals -sharp teeth and wide mouth to capture prey

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schooling

-possible for a group of smaller fish to appear much larger -harder for predators to capture any one fish

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69

Territoriality

-fish maintain their territories normally by posturing to show their aggression -posturing can include raised fins, open mouth, darting

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70

reproduction of fish

-hermaphroditic (possess male and female reproductive organs) -simultaneous hermaphrodites (have these structures at the same time) -sequential hermaphrodites (possess the structures at different times during life)

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71

Types of Sequential Hermaphrodites

-Protogynous (female to male) -Protandrous (male to female)

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72

Class Reptilia

reptiles

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73

Class Aves

birds

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74

Class Mammalia

mammals

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75

Nekton

All organisms that swim actively in open water, independent of currents

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76

Marine Reptiles

-air breathers -dry skin and scales -egg layers on land -cold-blooded

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77

Ectotherm

an animal whose body temperature varies with the temperature of its surroundings -doesn't use energy -thrive in warm

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78

Endotherm

An animal whose body controls and regulates its temperature by controlling the internal heat it produces

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79

Homeotherm

an animal with a constant body temperature

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80

poikilotherm

an animal whose body temperature varies with the temperature of its surroundings

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81

sea turtles

-poikilotherms and ectotherms -breed at sea -internal fertilization -can have many males -breed every 2-4 years -return to land to lay eggs -lay 120 eggs

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82

Sea Turtles Eggs

-soft and leathery -lay where they were born -incubation of 60 days -temperer determines the sex (cool is male)

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83

turtle hatchling

-hatch in 2 months -wait until night to leave nest -head for water

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84

Papillomavirus

virus that affects sea turtles

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85

Sea turtle diet

-babies are omnivorous -adults are carnivores -green turtles are vegetarian

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86

sargassum refuge

use seaweed as an area of refuge, rest, and/or food

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87

Green Sea Turtle

-vegetarian -fat in body is green from diet -considers tropical nesting turtles -endangered

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88

Leatherback

-largest sea turtle -feed on jellies -backward facing spines in mouth

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89

Hawksbill Sea Turtle

tropical spices -feed coral, sponge

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90

loggerhead

least vulnerable -eats crabs and mollusks

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91

Turtle threats

-killed for eggs, meat, skin, shell -poached and over exploration -habitat destruction -fishing gear -climate change

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92

sea snakes

55 species -found in Indian and Pacific Ocean -laterally flattened body with paddle like tail -3-4 feet -venomous

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93

saltwater crocodile

found in estuaries, mangrove swamps, rivers, open ocean -eat all types of prey

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94

marine iguana

-Galapagos -portion of life in water -dive to feed on sea weed and sea grass -most of day they are basking on shore -laterally flattened tails -limb bones -salt is expelled from cranial exocrine glands -blunt noses

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95

Seabirds

feathers that cover the body are coated in oil from glandular secretions to waterproof -colonial nesters- near shore, cliffs, shrubs, and trees

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96

Penguins

flightless with flipper like structure -Antarctica -layer of fat and trap air in the feathers to keep warm -share parenting responsibilities

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97

marine mammals

-vertebrates -hair -make milk -torpedo like fusiform bodies to reduce drag -modified limbs for propulsion or steering -tails for propulsion and balance

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98

Thermoregulation

-dense fur or blubber -countercurrent heat exchange -large body size -behavioral adaptations

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99

counter current exchange

the transfer of heat between fluids that are flowing in opposite directions -transferred from arteries to veins

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100

diving

-pinnipeds and cetaceans have large and complex blood vessel systems which serve to store oxygen -reduced heart rate -shunting of oxygen to vital organs

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