Psych Exam 4

studied byStudied by 0 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

consciousness

1 / 266

Tags and Description

267 Terms

1

consciousness

the awareness of our internal and external environment

New cards
2

Meditation

an altered state of consciousness that may involve focused and regular breathing, specific body position, minimization of external distractions, mental imagery, and/or mental clarity.

New cards
3

Focused attention meditation

directing attention toward an object for the entire meditation session

New cards
4

Open monitoring meditation

Type of meditation that involves nonjudgemental observation of all aspects of experience

New cards
5

selective attention

conscious focus on one stimulus or perception at a given time

New cards
6

Cocktail party phenomenon

the ability to tune into a particular message while filtering out others in a crowded, noisy, or chaotic environment

New cards
7

Selective inattention (inattentional blindness

the environmental stimuli screened out or ignored while your attention is selectively focused on something else

New cards
8

Change blindness

a form of inattentional blindness where the visual stimuli in the environment change during a moment of interruption but go unnoticed by the observer

New cards
9

Multitasking

attention divided among two or more stimuli or activities

New cards
10

Most psychologists define consciousness as the awareness of our ______ and __________ environment.

internal; external

New cards
11

This altered state of consciousness involves training the mind by using focused and regulated breathing, minimization of distractions, and mental imagery.

Meditation

New cards
12

Syed is sitting in a bustling restaurant listening to his friend talk about the test he just took. Syed is interested in the conversation because he is taking the test tomorrow but all of a sudden his interest is drawn across the room because he heard his name spoken. This is called ___________________.

cocktail party phenomenon

New cards
13

Sasha has her laptop open in class and is watching funny cat videos while the professor talks. After class is over, she hears the other students talking about the quiz they are having Friday. Which phenomenon explains why Sasha didn't hear her professor talk about the quiz?

Selective inattention

New cards
14

Multiple studies have shown that when students multitask during class or studying

they do not learn effectively, which leads to lower grades.

New cards
15

Sleep

the daily, natural loss of consciousness controlled by the brain

New cards
16

Circadian rhythm

biological clock that regulates various bodily functions on an approximately 24 hour cycle

New cards
17

Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)

the small part of the hypothalamus that controls the circadian clock

New cards
18

Rapid Eye Movement (REM)

a deep stage of sleep consisting of rapid eye movement (REM) typically associated with dreaming; sometimes referred to paradoxical sleep

New cards
19

Beta waves

low amplitude, high frequency and irregular brain waves present during active wakefulness

<p>low amplitude, high frequency and irregular brain waves present during active wakefulness</p>
New cards
20

Alpha waves

high frequency, low amplitude brain waves characteristic of a relaxed or drowsy state

<p>high frequency, low amplitude brain waves characteristic of a relaxed or drowsy state</p>
New cards
21

N1

the first stage of sleep where alpha wave activity decreases and slower theta waves become more active

New cards
22

Theta waves

brain waves associated with the transition of sleep, may be present in N1 and N2 stages of sleep

<p>brain waves associated with the transition of sleep, may be present in N1 and N2 stages of sleep</p>
New cards
23

N2

the second stage of sleep characterized by increased relaxation and light sleep

New cards
24

N3

the third stage of sleep consisting of deep sleep characterized by higher amplitude delta waves

New cards
25

Delta waves

high amplitude, low frequency brain waves that appear when sleep deepens.

<p>high amplitude, low frequency brain waves that appear when sleep deepens.</p>
New cards
26

Stage R

a deep stage of sleep consisting of REM typically associated with dreaming, sometimes associated with paradoxical sleep

New cards
27

Brain waves that are lowest in frequency and highest in amplitude are called _____________ waves.

delta

New cards
28

Select the correct order of brain waves from actively awake to deep sleep.

beta, alpha theta, delta

New cards
29

Choose the correct pairing of characteristic brain waves with their stages of sleep.

Stage W || Beta Waves; Stage N1 || Alpha Waves; Stage N2 || Theta Waves; Stage N3 || Delta Waves

New cards
30

Insomnia

sleep disorder characterized by dissatisfaction with sleep quality or duration

New cards
31

Narcolepsy

a sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and periodic, uncontrollable sleep attacks

New cards
32

Sleep Apnea

a sleep disorder involving regular interruptions of breathing during sleep

New cards
33

continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)

treatment for sleep apnea that involves wearing a mask the uses air pressure to keep the airway open during sleep.

New cards
34

Parasomnias

abnormal behavioral, experiential, or psychological events that occur in conjunction with sleep (nightmare, sleep terrors, and sleepwalking)

New cards
35

Nightmares

scary dreams that almost always occur during REM sleep

New cards
36

Sleepwalking

a parasomnia that occurs during NREM sleep in response to an abnormal transition to light sleep

New cards
37

Sleep terrors

a parasomnia characterized by scary dreams and increased autonomic nervous system activity; typically occurs during NREM sleep so it can be accompanied by movement

New cards
38

Dreams

the sequence of images, feelings, ideas, and impressions that pass through our minds as we sleep

New cards
39

Manifest Content

the actual, remembered content of the dream, including storyline, characters, and specific details

New cards
40

Latent content

the underlying meaning of the dream where the unconscious, repressed wishes, and drives of the dreamer are expressed

New cards
41

Activation-synthesis hypothesis

the theory of dreaming that dreams are a result of the brain's attempt to make sense of this random neural activity

New cards
42

Our ___________is a biological clock responsible for the regulation of body temperature and levels of arousal during our sleep and wake cycle.

circadian rhythm

New cards
43

One of the many reasons psychologists believe we need to sleep is that our bodies tire during the day, and sleep helps the body recuperate and function at maximum capacity. This is a description of which theory?

Body restoration

New cards
44

In which stage of sleep do vivid dreams typically occur?

REM

New cards
45

The brain waves with the highest amplitude are referred to as _________ waves.

delta

New cards
46

Beta waves are associated with ___________, while theta waves are characteristic of the __________ stage.

alert wakefulness; N2

New cards
47

Billy is having trouble with insomnia. He has difficulty going to sleep and wakes up numerous times throughout the night. Based on what you know about sleep hygiene, what should you recommend he start doing?

Go to bed and get up at the same time each day

New cards
48

According to Freud, the latent content of our dreams is __________ and contains the repressed _______ and drives of the dreamer.

unconscious; wishes

New cards
49

Psychoactive drug

a chemical substance that alters brain function resulting in changes in consciousness, perception, and/or mood

New cards
50

Psychological dependence

process in which the body becomes physically dependant, or reliant, on the drug; typically involves tolerance and/or withdrawal

New cards
51

Tolerance

a form of psychological dependance where the body becomes used to a drug, resulting in an increased need for the drug to achieve the same affects

New cards
52

Withdrawal symptoms

psychological symptoms produced by the body when the drug is absent from the system

New cards
53

Physiological dependence

the emotional or motivational symptoms that include intense cravings for the drug, inability to concentrate on other nondrug-related activities, and/or feeling restless when not taking the drug

New cards
54

Substance use disorder

a psychological disorder characterized by a pattern of drug use leading to distress or significant impairment in functioning

New cards
55

Depressants (alcohol, barbiturates, and benzodiazepines)

class of drugs that depress of slow down the central nervous system and other bodily functions

New cards
56

Stimulants (caffeine, nicotine, amphetamine, cocaine)

a drug that excite or increase the functioning of the central nervous system and speed up the body

New cards
57

Narcotics (codeine, morphine, hydrocodone, oxycodone)

a type of depressant use medically in the management of pain

New cards
58

Heroin

a narcotic that activates specific opioid receptors that stimulate dopamine in the reward centers of the brain causing the sensation of pleasure

New cards
59

Hallucinogens

class of drug that can produce unusual sensations, distortions in the perception of reality and, in some cases, intense emotional mood swings

New cards
60

Marijuana

a drug containing tetrahydrocannabinol (THC); can produce some altered sensations, feelings of well-being, and changes in cognition

New cards
61

Depressants _____________ the functioning of the central nervous system. Some examples of these drugs include alcohol, __________, and ____________.

decrease; barbiturates; benzodiazepines

New cards
62

Which of the following correctly pairs the class of drugs with specific drugs from that category?

depressants = Xanax; stimulants = Methamphetamine; narcotics = Oxycodone; hallucinogens = LSD

New cards
63

Kirsten started taking her mother’s prescription for Vicodin. While this drug use doesn’t appear to be significantly affecting her life in any way, she has noticed over the past few months that she needs to take more Vicodin to feel its effects. Kirsten is experiencing ____________.

physiological dependence

New cards
64

Physiological dependence on a substance typically includes __________ and __________

tolerance; withdrawal

New cards
65

Markita promised her parents she would stop smoking marijuana. Every time she worried about school and bills, she would remember how marijuana relaxed her and made her feel good. She ended up smoking again and again, even though she hated disappointing her parents. This is an example of what type of dependence?

Psychological

New cards
66

Rina works hard all week long. On the weekend, she engages in binge drinking with her friends. How many drinks must she have in one night for it to be considered binge drinking?

4

New cards
67

Which neurotransmitter receptors does methamphetamine destroy in the brain?

Dopamine

New cards
68

Benzodiazepines come from the class of drugs called _______________, which ______________ the functioning of the central nervous system.

depressants; decrease

New cards
69

Heroin is classified as a ________ and directly _______ stress-related emotions.

narcotic; decreases

New cards
70

Petra feels really alive and an overwhelming sense of well-being after her 4-mile morning run. We could say Petra has entered a(n) __________state of consciousness after exercise.

altered

New cards
71

This type of meditation trains a person to become a nonjudgmental observer of all their thoughts and emotions.

Open monitoring meditation

New cards
72

_________ perception is an example of awareness without attention.

Subliminal

New cards
73

In a study on inattentional blindness, what percentage of radiologists failed to detect the intentional insertion of the image of a gorilla in CT scans?

83%

New cards
74

Justin installed a blue tooth device in his car. He now believes he will be safe from distracted driving because he does not have to use his hands to hold his phone. Justin doesn't understand that distracted driving stems from impaired _______ caused by redirection of ________.

cognition; attention

New cards
75

This small part of the hypothalamus controls the circadian clock and is responsive to light.

Suprachiasmatic nucleus

New cards
76

Quincy notices that he feels much more focused and aware later in the day and struggles to concentrate in his 8 a.m. meeting at work. Based on his circadian rhythm, Quincy is most likely in what age group?

20–25

New cards
77

In order to study sleep in natural conditions, researchers took people out to camp in the woods for one week. What did they discover about the influence of natural light on the participant's biological clocks?

It shifted the increase and decrease of melatonin in their bodies to 2 hours earlier to correspond with the natural light-dark conditions.

New cards
78

Cal was worried because of how much his newborn son was sleeping. He called the doctor to check how many hours a typical 2-month-old sleeps. The doctor told him newborns are supposed to sleep _____ hours each day.

14–17

New cards
79

Adolescents need _____ hours of sleep each night but on average only get ______ hours of sleep each night.

8–10; 7

New cards
80

Jaebok stayed up studying most of the night for his calculus final. He only slept about 4 hours. According to research, his memory and cognitive functioning will be decreased by approximately what percentage?

30%

New cards
81

The American Academy of Sleep Medicine changed the sleep cycle system in 2012 and now recognizes which stage of sleep as the deepest stage?

N3

New cards
82

Andre sometimes will wake himself up because his body jerks as he is drifting off to sleep and he says it feels like he is falling. Researchers refer to this bodily sensation as a _______________.

hypnagogic jerk

New cards
83

____________ waves emerge in sleep Stage N1 and continue into Stage N2.

Theta

New cards
84

This disorder involves excessive daytime sleepiness and periodic, uncontrolled sleep attacks that may leave the sufferer falling asleep at odd and inconvenient times.

Narcolepsy

New cards
85

Katie who is 10 years old will occasionally find herself asleep at the foot of her parents' bed in the morning, even though she went to sleep in her own bed. She never remembers leaving her room and walking to her parents' room. Katie is experiencing _______, which tends to occur during ______ sleep.

sleepwalking; NREM

New cards
86

Cyan told her friend that she believes her dreams are just random neural activity and they have no deeper meaning. Cyan believes in:

the activation-synthesis hypothesis.

New cards
87

The information-processing perspective on dreaming suggests dreams allow us to consolidate experiences from the day into ___________.

memories

New cards
88

People commonly dream of their teeth falling out; if you ascribe to the idea that dreams have hidden meanings, what is a way to interpret this dream?

Anxiety about self-image and appearance

New cards
89

Drugs that alter brain functions resulting in changes in consciousness, perception, and/or mood are called ___________ drugs.

psychoactive

New cards
90

A person can be diagnosed with a substance use disorder when the pattern of drug use causes _________ impairment or ___________ in the person's life.

significant; distress

New cards
91

Mia gets so drunk at college parties that she passes out and wakes up in a different location. She is not concerned about her behavior; however, her actions would fit into which diagnostic criteria for substance use disorder?

Using the substance in risky situations

New cards
92

What is one of the most commonly prescribed benzodiazepines on college campuses?

Xanax

New cards
93

What is the most widely used stimulant drug in the world?

Caffeine

New cards
94

Ritalin, a stimulant drug, is used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. How does a stimulant help people who already have difficulties with distraction and hyperactivity?

By providing internal stimulation of neurotransmitters within the brain instead of the person seeking external stimulation

New cards
95

Narcotics are a type of __________that work by stimulating the body's internal pain management system or ___________.

depressant; endorphins

New cards
96

Sam has been taking opioids she buys from her friend for more than a year. She has spent all her savings on buying these pills and is considering dropping out of school so she can work more to make more money to buy drugs. If she goes too long without taking a pill, she begins to sweat and feel nauseated. Sam is experiencing ______________.

a substance use disorder and physiological dependence

New cards
97

Drew is an 18-year-old senior in high school. He has been using marijuana for 2 years on a daily basis and believes it has no long-term side effects. What does the research show as a potential side effect for Drew?

Lower IQ score

New cards
98

Which of the following can lead to a decreased level of consciousness?

Alcohol

New cards
99

Janel goes to sleep at night around 11 p.m. and usually drifts off quickly. She wakes up every morning at 3:45 and tosses and turns for 2 hours until she falls into a restless sleep to wake up at 6:30 feeling tired and groggy. She struggles throughout her day to stay awake and concentrate. Janel most likely suffers from which sleep disorder?

Insomnia

New cards
100

Sex

our biological classification as male or female based on the sex chromosomes contained in our DNA, our reproductive organs, and our anatomical features (biological)

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 16 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 178 people
Updated ... ago
4.9 Stars(8)
note Note
studied byStudied by 12 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 12 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 72 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 111676 people
Updated ... ago
4.9 Stars(533)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard94 terms
studied byStudied by 64 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(3)
flashcards Flashcard31 terms
studied byStudied by 174 people
Updated ... ago
4.7 Stars(11)
flashcards Flashcard58 terms
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard61 terms
studied byStudied by 16 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard193 terms
studied byStudied by 174 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard36 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard185 terms
studied byStudied by 19 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard49 terms
studied byStudied by 404 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)