Comm 120 Midterm 1

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Interpersonal communication

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Interpersonal communication

Production and processing of verbal and nonverbal messages between two or few persons

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Linear model

A one way model. Early model of communication. One individual does something and it is receive by others

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Person who is doing something verbally or nonverbally, they are producing the behaviors (Also called encoders and sources)

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Person who observes it was ears, eyes, or touch

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Meaning that is being communicated

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How a sender sends their message to the receiver, can be verbal, mediated, or nonverbal

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The issues with the linear model

Model is too simplistic because it focuses a lot on the sender but not the receiver.

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Concept that helps us consider what the receiver is doing. Vocalizing, nodding, and eye contact shows we are paying attention. Tells us that people are both senders and receivers

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Anything that impedes or prevents communication from being received

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Physical noise

External to both speak and listeners and prevents the message from being received

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Psychological noise

Prevents the message from being received because it is a distraction in the mind

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Physiological noise

Due to things associated with the body that prevents the message from being received

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Semantic noise

When the message cannot be received because we have differences in what the meanings of the words are

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Transactional model

Both communicators are sender and receivers at the same time, we are giving comm and receiving it at the same time

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Broader than context, where is it occurring, is it outside or in a classroom? Contains more physical aspects

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Fit within the greater environment, what is the situation we are having with the interaction? Will change how we send and receive messages

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Elements that define interpersonal communication

  1. Intentionally

  2. Shared information/meaning

  3. Transmission

  4. Bond

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For it truly be interpersonal communication, the message/behavior needs to be done intentionally, if not it is not interpersonal communication

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Shared information/meaning

Means that the message/communication is understood by both individuals, feedback tells us that there is shared meaning

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Helps us distinguish intrapersonal communication from interpersonal communication. Messages has to leave your head to go to others through channels in order to be interpersonal communication

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Recognition of a relationship between two people no matter how superficial. You recognize something exists = bond

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Symbolic Interactionism Theory

As we communicate and interact with others, we reach shared meaning and is argued to be the first interpersonal communication theory

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Three axioms (assumptions) of communication

  1. One cannot not communicate

  2. Every communication has a content (direct) and a relationship (subtle) component. The relationship component classifies the content component and is therefore meta-communication

  3. Punctuation determines meaning

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First Axiom

arguing that there is no opposite of behavior, everything we do or don’t do communicates a message and we can misinterpret

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Second Axiom

Every form of communication has a literal meaning and the subtle relationship component

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Third Axiom

Punctuation or how we say things helps us understand the message, in nonverbal communication we call this vocalics or paralanguage

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Communication about communication, helps us come to meaning about what they are saying, when they say it

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Situational approach to interpersonal communication

Distinguish between various kinds of communication in terms of the situation (context) in which the communication takes place. Contexts is what makes a differences, the focus is on the number of people and connection

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Factors of the situational approaches to interpersonal communication

  1. Number of communicators: can only be two people

  2. Degree of physical proximity: we need to be physically close

  3. Different sense available: sight, touch, etc.

  4. Availability of feedback: lots of feedback and no delay

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Defining interpersonal communication from the situational approach

Involves a small number of communicators, it occurs in a close face-to-face situation, it permits the use of maximum numbers of sensory channels, and it allows for immediate feedback

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The developmental approach

Defining feature of interpersonal communication is the predictive power for a partner’s behavior, people make predictions about the effects of their communication behavior as they get to know someone

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Sources of data for prediction-making

  1. Cultural level data

  2. Sociological level data

  3. Psychological level data

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Cultural level of data

The broadest level of data. Easiest to learn but worst at helping us make accurate predication of behavior

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Sociological level data

Rooted in one’s group’s memberships, as we know memberships we can make predictions of behavior

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Psychological level of data

Information about a person that makes them unique and an individual from all other people (Personality, comm preferences) most difficult info to learn because you must get to know someone and they must self disclose info. The most helpful for us to make accurate prediction of behavior, but hardest to learn

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Politeness Theory assumptions

  1. All people have face wants

  2. It is in everybody’s best interests to cooperate in satisfying each other’s face needs

  3. People are rational, so they choose means that will satisfy their ends

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Positive face

Our desire for praise, validation, approval, liking, so on. We have desires to be liked and to be approved. We want to receive praise from other people, this is why we cannot satisfy our own faces

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Negative face

Our desire for anatomy, desire to make our own decisions. We want people to acknowledge that we have anatomy and that we can make choices in our lives. Satisfy this by reminding them we have a choice

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FTA criticism

Wanting someone to change, we are threatening their positive face because we are not giving them praise

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FTA request

Asking someone to do something, threatens their negative face because we are taking away their choice

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Degree to which an act is face-threatening depends on

  1. Social distance

  2. Power or status of the listener relative to the speaker

  3. Degree of imposition

  4. Rank

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Social distance

Two aspects: Similarity and level of closeness

Similarity: more that someone is a peer or similar to us. The more they are our peer, the less face threatening

Level of closeness: People that we are close with, are less threatening

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Power or status of the listener relative to the speaker

Level of power, does one have more power than the other or is it the same. Can they punish me or not, or can I do that to them.

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Degree of imposition

How significant the request is it. If the request is small, it is not that face threatening. If the request is big, it is more face threatening

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Certain topics, in certain cultures are just naturally more face threatening

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Combines all four of the degrees. Helps us consider how polite or impolite we need to be. If the social distance is great, we are not peers, they have power over us, it is a large degree of imposition, we need to tip toe and be very polite

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Politeness theory friendship study

People naturally judge messages on explicitness, dominance, and argument. Being explicit was seen positively and having good rationale to an argument. Dominance was seen as very impolite. Partially goes against politeness theory as being blunt is seen as rude

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Refers to a unit of sound

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What helps us distinguish between language and non language. The order in which words are presented

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Meaning of words, can come from culture

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What is the function of the words, how are the words collectively working together to provide something for us

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Digital code of words

A. arbitrary elements

B. Rules exist for combing these elements

C. Potential transformation

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Analogic code of words

A. the word is “thing-like”: purr sounds like purr, sizzle sounds like something sizzling

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We should only provide info that is completely necessary, but we shouldn’t provide more or less. We should provide the exact amount of information that is needed

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About providing info that is accurate, honest, truthful, and correct. Don’t make statements that we know or believe to be false or a lie.

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Relevance. Contributions or communication should be connected or relevant to the topic under discussion

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Provide info that is clear, not vague. Don’t be ambiguous and avoid obscurity

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Inference of meaning or more information is implied by the violation

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We should take into account the people we are speaking with. Don’t be offensive, rude or vulgar

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We should not repeat info that we were told in private or in privilege. We also don’t have the right to ask about info we do not need to know. Has a heavy case by case basis

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Follow as many of the maxims as we can and don’t violate them

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Problems with the maxims

  1. Too broad

  2. Do not handle all aspects of language

  3. Cooperative conversations is culturally determined

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Equivocal communication

Being intentionally vague or ambiguous in order to avoid conflict

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Types of nonverbal communications

  1. body movements: behaviors we do with our body

  2. vocal behaviors: how we say the words, paralanguage

  3. clothing and appearance: The way we look can communicate

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Why nonverbal communication should be of interest

  1. Tendency for nonverbal behavior to leak

  2. Sometimes it might be more important than verbal communication

  3. We tend to trust nonverbal more than verbal cues even when both channels are presenting congruent information in the context of liking/relationships

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Assumptions of EVT

  1. Humans have expectations for how others should behave

  2. Expectations exert significant influence on impressions and outcomes

  3. Violations of expectations are not always negative

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We have these expectations, these are what we expect or predict to happen, can be influenced by who we are communicating with

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When what we expect to happen, doesn’t happen

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Violation valence

Was the violation good or bad?

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Communicator reward valence

If we cannot decide a violation valence, we then look to the person who did the violation and decide what sort of characteristics they provide, based on this we assign a valence

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Gestures that have a very clear meaning and we can use them as sub for words

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Nonverbal body movements that are 100% tied to the words being spoken. They do not exist if there are no words. Provides a visual aspect

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Gestures that control the flow of our convo. Tells us when it is our turn to speak or when it is not. I want to speak so I raise my hand

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Used to manage our emotional arousal, we do not want to be over or under emotionally aroused

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Phonetic pause

Pause we do with our voice. A really quick pause, so fast that it is not detectable by the human ear. Audibly we cannot hear. 250ms or less

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Silent pause

A pause that is longer and can be detected, absence of sound. 250ms or longer

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Filled pause

A pause where sound is happening during the pause. 250ms or longer. Saying things like uh or um. We make sound but does not contribute to the message

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Response latency

Amount of time from when person A stops speaking and person b starts speaking. Can be short or long

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Speech rate

How fast someone is talking, are they speaking really quickly or slow. Speech rate can be effected by emotions, cognitive load, or culture

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How we move our mouth, our lips, and our tongue. How sharp we say our words

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Volume, sometimes we are loud or quiet. If we are loud it might be because we are mad, we might be quiet because we are sad

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We can go up or down in this. it can communicate our age, trustworthiness, personality

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Can change the entire meaning of what we are saying, different stressing can change what a sentence means

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When one person is looking at another in the direction of their face

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Mutual gaze

Both people are looking in the direction of their face

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Gaze aversion

Looking at the ground or the sky. Don’t want to give eye contact for whatever reason

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7 universal facial expressions

Sadness, joy, fear, anger, disgust, surprise, contempt

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We can decorate our bodies differently, wearing different types of clothes

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Wearing clothes as a protective manner, jacket if its cold, firefighter suit

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We can wear clothes to enhance our attractiveness or to decrease it

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Group identification

Clothes that can signal we are a member of a particular group

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Status or role

Clothes that communicates affluence, wearing brand names, or roles like cops

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Intimate proxemic zone

Between 0 and 18 inches away. We don't communicate with a lot of people in this zone, only for people that we are really close with. Space is cultural, different cultures will have different approaches for what is and is not acceptable. Touching occurs in this zone, can hear well

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Personal proxemics zone

18 inches to 4 feet, or 1,5 feet or 4 feet. Being at an arms distance, the end of the arms are the end of this zone. We can hear, see, see facial expressions, not touch. Usually only reserved for people we are close to

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social proxemic zone

4 feet to 12 feet. We can interact with pretty much everyone in this zone. Stanger's, friends, whoever. Interaction is easy when they are closer, but the far we get its harder to see, hear, or understand, may have to increase volume

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Public proxemic zone

12 to feet to infinity. Not a lot of interpersonal interaction happening here. You can't really interact with someone 20 feet away, at least not privately. Nonverbals tend to be harder to see and understand

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Attachment theory

Infants want closeness and safety, this is because it gives them a sense of survival. They especially want this during a time of need. ex: during illness, hungry, sleepy, diaper changed, being scared. The caregiver could respond consistently, not consistently, or rebuff, Caregiver response during a time of need is what forms the attachment. In essence, the caregiver is teaching the child what they need to do to get that sense of survival

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Model of others

How I view you, especially someone I view as an attachment figure

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Model of self

How I view myself

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Consistent response

Caregivers are frequently coming to the child during a time of need. That would form a secure attachment, have a positive model of self and positive model of others. View themselves as being worthy of love and their caregiver as someone they can relies on

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