a&p unit 4 exam

studied byStudied by 1 person
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

What are the three types of muscle tissue?

1 / 103

encourage image

There's no tags or description

Looks like no one added any tags here yet for you.

104 Terms

1

What are the three types of muscle tissue?

Skeletal, smooth, & cardiac muscle

New cards
2

describe skeletal muscle:

a striated & voluntary tissue, located in skeletal muscles, whose (fibers) cells are multinucleated.

New cards
3

describe smooth muscle:

a nonstriated & involuntary tissue, located in the wall of hollow visceral organs (such as the stomach), whose cells are uninucleate.

New cards
4

describe cardiac muscle:

a striated & involuntary muscle, located in the heart, whose cells are uninucleate.

New cards
5

What does striated mean regarding muscle tissues?

Refers to the alternating dark & light bands visible through a microscope

New cards
6

Structure of muscular system:

skeletal muscle, tendons, & aponeurosis

New cards
7

Function of the muscular system: (1)

Movement: as a skeletal muscle contracts, tension (force) develops. Generally, this force is transmitted in such a way that a muscle’s insertion (moveable

New cards
8

Function of the muscular system: (2)

Maintenance of posture

New cards
9

Function of the muscular system: (3)

Production of heat for thermoregulation

New cards
10

Define tendon:

a cord-like structure made of dense connective tissue which transmits force from a skeletal muscle to a bone.

New cards
11

Define aponeurosis:

a flat sheet of dense connective tissue which joins muscle to muscle

New cards
12

Approximately, how many skeletal muscles occur?

406

New cards
13

Define myo:

muscle

New cards
14

Define sarco:

denoting flesh or striped muscle

New cards
15

Define fiber:

cell for muscles

New cards
16

Define fascicle:

small bundles of nerve or muscle fibers enclosed by connective tissue

New cards
17

Define fascia:

connective tissue between skin & bones

New cards
18

describe Sarcolemma:

the cell membrane of a muscle fiber

New cards
19

describe Transverse tubule:

inward extension from the sarcolemma which conducts impulses into the muscle fiber

New cards
20

describe Sarcoplasmic reticulum:

smooth endoplasmic reticulum specialize for the storage & release of calcium ions (Ca+2)

New cards
21

Sarcoplasm:

the cytoplasm of a muscle fiber

New cards
22

describe Myofibrils:

a cylindrical bundles of contractile proteins

New cards
23

What do myofibrils include?

actin & myosin

New cards
24

describe Actin:

thin myofilament protein. Actin possesses binding sites for attachment of myosin “heads” to form cross-bridges during contraction.

New cards
25

describe Myosin:

thick myofilament. Myosin possesses “heads” which form cross-bridge links to actin’s binding sites during contraction.

New cards
26

describe Troponin & Tropomyosin:

inhibit actin’s binding sites prior to and after contraction.

New cards
27

How are actin & myosin arranged?

Into sarcomeres

New cards
28

Describe sarcomere:

the basic unit of striated muscle tissue

New cards
29

Describe z lines:

functional unit of a skeletal muscle fiber

New cards
30

Describe I band:

actin only; during contraction, it becomes smaller & disappears.

New cards
31

Describe A band:

actin & myosin; during contraction, it remains the constant length.

New cards
32

Describe neuromuscular junction:

the point at which a motor neuron provides the Ach stimulus to a muscle fiber’s sarcolemma

New cards
33

Describe synaptic vesicles:

releases ACh, which provides the stimulus to the muscle fiber’s sarcolemma

New cards
34

Describe acetylcholine ACh:

provides the stimulus for muscle contraction

New cards
35

Describe events of skeletal muscle fiber relaxation.

  • ACh is decomposed by the enzyme AChE (acetylcholinesterase)

  • Calcium ions  are actively transported back into the SR

  • Myosin cross-bridge links release from actin’s binding sites

  • The sarcomere resumes its resting length

New cards
36

What is the 1st energy source (immediate energy source)?

ATP is the source of energy for muscle fibers.

New cards
37

What is the 2nd energy source?

creatine phosphate donates energy to regenerate ATP.

New cards
38

What is the 3rd energy source?

glucose is initiated to supply energy to regenerate ATP.

New cards
39

What is the 4th energy source?

Glycogen reserves are mobilized to supply energy sources.

New cards
40

What is required for the aerobic stages of cellular respiration of glucose?

oxygen

New cards
41

When there’s insufficient oxygen, muscle fibers initiate the production of?

Lactic acid

New cards
42

what contributes to muscle fatigue and eventually to muscular soreness?

lactic acid

New cards
43

During intense muscle activity, what develops as muscle fibers produce and accumulate lactic acid?

oxygen debt

New cards
44

within skeletal muscle fibers, what protein temporarily stores oxygen?

myoglobin

New cards
45

“fast” muscle fibers contain ____ ____ and appear what color?

little myoglobin; pale/whitish

New cards
46

what type of muscle fibers are specialized for rapid responses to stimulus, but will fatigue rapidly?

fast muscle fibers

New cards
47

“slow” muscle fibers contain ____ ____ & appear /_ in color.

abundant myoglobin; dark/reddish

New cards
48

what kind of fibers respond relatively slowly to stimuli, but are specialized for endurance

slow muscle fibers

New cards
49

contraction/relaxation period:

a single response of a muscle to a single stimulus.

New cards
50

describe Minimum in twitch response

the stimulus must be of “threshold” intensity or greater.

New cards
51

latent period:

time in which the impulse travels across the sarcolemma, into the T-tubules, and into the SR.

New cards
52

label the diagram for the twitch response

-

<p>-</p>
New cards
53

Define tonus:

the natural and continuous slight contraction of a muscle

New cards
54

Define isometric contraction:

contraction that tenses a muscle, but does not produce joint movement.

New cards
55

Define isotonic contraction:

contraction that produces movement

New cards
56

Define atrophy:

decrease in size (and strength) of a muscle

New cards
57

Define hypertrophy:

increase in size (and strength) of a muscle

New cards
58

Describe the relationship between bones & skeleton muscles in producing movement.

muscles are attached to bones by tendons at their origins and insertions. Skeletal muscles produce movements by pulling on the bones.

New cards
59

Define origin:

the attachment point of a muscle to a stationary bone

New cards
60

Define insertion:

the attachment point of a muscle to a moveable structure (ex: bone)

New cards
61

Define innervation:

the nerve supply of a muscle

New cards
62

define action:

the movement produced when a muscle contracts (ex: elevation, flexion, adduction, etc.)

New cards
63

Define agonist (primer mover):

the primary muscle that contracts to produce an action (primer mover)

New cards
64

Define synergist:

a muscle which assists a prime mover

New cards
65

Define antagonist:

a muscle with an opposite action of the prime mover

New cards
66

Describe ways in which skeletal muscles are named

direction, location, size, number of origins, & origin & insertion

New cards
67

Describe ways in which skeletal muscles are named

direction, location, size, number of origins, & origin & insertion

New cards
68

Define rectus:

fibers run parallel to the body’s midline

New cards
69

Define oblique:

fibers run diagonal to the midline

New cards
70

Define transverse:

fibers run at a right angle to the midline (perpendicular to the midline)

New cards
71

Define major:

large

New cards
72

Define minor:

small

New cards
73

Define minimus:

smallest

New cards
74

Define medius:

medium-sized

New cards
75

Define maximus:

largest

New cards
76

Define longus:

longest

New cards
77

Define brevis:

shortest

New cards
78

Location:

bone names often reflect associated skeletal components

New cards
79

Frontalis (a muscle of facial expression):

elevates eyebrows

New cards
80

Temporalis (a muscle of mastication):

elevates the mandible

New cards
81

Masseter:

elevates the mandible during mastication

New cards
82

Orbicularis oculi (a muscle of facial expression):

closes the eye

New cards
83

Zygomaticus (a muscle of facial):

elevates the upper lip

New cards
84

Sternomastoid (sternocleidomastoid) -

rotates the head

New cards
85

Pectoralis major-

medially rotates humerus, adducts humerus

New cards
86

Abdominal muscles (external oblique, internal oblique, rectus abdominis, transversus abdominis) –

compress & flex the abdomen

New cards
87

Deltoid:

abducts the humerus

New cards
88

Biceps brachii

flexes the elbow

New cards
89

Flexors located in the anteriorly in the forearm:

flex wrist

New cards
90

Sartorius:

laterally rotates the thigh

New cards
91

Adductor longus:

adducts the femur

New cards
92

Gracilis:

adducts the thigh

New cards
93

Quadriceps femoris:

extend the knee

New cards
94

Tibialis anterior:

dorsiflexes the foot

New cards
95

Trapezius:

extends/ hyperextends the head

New cards
96

Infraspinatus:

adducts the humerus

New cards
97

Triceps brachii-

extends the elbow

New cards
98

Extensors located posteriorly in the forearm:

extend wrist or phalanges

New cards
99

Gluteus maximus:

extend & rotate the femur

New cards
100

Gluteus medius:

rotates the femur

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 19 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 60 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard31 terms
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard133 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard55 terms
studied byStudied by 16 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard48 terms
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard71 terms
studied byStudied by 155 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(4)
flashcards Flashcard185 terms
studied byStudied by 35 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard26 terms
studied byStudied by 155 people
Updated ... ago
4.5 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard27 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)