bio exam 2

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Lack membrane; enclosed cell

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Biology

134 Terms

1

Lack membrane; enclosed cell

prokaryotic cell

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2

no nucleus

prokaryotic cell

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3

generally smaller in size

prokaryotic cell

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4

bacteria and archaea

prokaryotic cell

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5

single celled

prokaryotic cell

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structurally complex

eukaryotic cell

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7

enclosed compartments: organelles

eukaryotic cell

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8

DNA in nucleus

eukaryotic cell

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9

animals, plants, fungi, protists

eukaryotic cell

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10

chromosomes

where dna is organized

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11

chromatin

DNA+proteins in chromosomes

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12

Nucleolus

made up of rNA + proteins and are where ribosomes are made

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13

Ribosomes

make proteins in prokaryotes + eukaryotes

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14

ribosome input

mRNA

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15

ribosome output

protein

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16

mRNA

messenger RNA; tells the body how to make protein

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17

tRNA

transfer RNA; type of RNA that carries amino acids to the ribosome

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18

rRNA

ribosomal RNA; type of RNA that makes up part of the ribosome

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19

Rough ER

produces proteins, filled with ribosomes distrubtes transport vesicles

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20

Smooth ER

Synthesizes lipids

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21

Golgi apparatus

shipping center of cell modifies products of the ER, manufactures certain macromolecules, sorts and packages materials into transport vesicles

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22

vesicle

A membrane bound sac (lipid bilayer) that contains materials involved in transport of the cell.

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vacuole

Stores materials Type of vesicle formed from ER + golgi apparatus

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24

food vacuole

digests food particles ingested by the cell phagocytosis

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contractile vacuole

The cell structure that collects extra water from the cytoplasm and then expels it from the cell

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lysosome

An organelle containing digestive enzymes form from golgi complex

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27

central vacuole

plant cell holds materials and wastes provide structure and support for growing plant.

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28

mitochondria

sites of cellular respiration, generates ATP

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cristae

folds in the inner membrane of mitochondria large surface area for enzymes that synthesize ATP

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30

mitochondrial matrix

inner membrane of mitochondria aids in cellular respiration (has enzymes for cellular respiration)

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31

contains chlorophyll

chloroplast

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32

chloroplasts

(plants and algae) site of photosynthesis

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thlyakoid

saclike photosynthetic membranes found in chloroplasts helps absorb sunlight for photosynthesis

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34

granum

stack of thylakoids

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35

stroma

internal fluid in chloroplast

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36

peroxisome

organelle with various specialized metabolic functions; produces hydrogen peroxide as a by-product, then converts it to water

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37

cell wall

plant cells protects plant cell, maintains its shape, prevents excessive uptake of water

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38

primary cell wall

thin & flexible

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39

secondary cell wall

added between plasma membrane and primary cell wall

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40

middle lamella

thin later between primary walls of adjacent cells

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plasmodesmata

channels that pierce plant cell walls water and small solutes can pass from cell to cell

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42

extracellular matrix

network of proteins and other materials that surround, support, and give structure to cells ANIMAL CELLS

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43

integrins

receptors that bind to the ECM

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44

cell junctions

cells interacting/communicating

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45

tight junctions

limit what passes through cells

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46

desmosomes

patches that holds cells together

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gap junctions

allows ions to pass through cells

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cytoskeleton

network of fibers throughout cytoplasm

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49

microtubules

thickest part of cytoskeleton grow + shrink attach to chromosomes (helps in cell division)

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50

intermediate filaments

maintain structure do not shrink + grow

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51

centrioles

9 triplets of microtubules arranged in a ring "microtubule organizing center"

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52

microtubules grow from ____ near the nucleus

centrosome

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53

cilia

Hairlike projections that extend from the plasma membrane and are used for movement Eukaryotic cells

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54

flagella

A long, whip-like filament that helps in cell motility eukaryotic + prokaryotic cells

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55

endosymbiotic theory

host cell + prokaryotic cell merged = eukaryotic cell with mitochondrion

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56

what is the plasma membrane made out of?

lipids and proteins

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57

endomembrane system

many membrane-bound organelles connected by vesciles protein secretory pathway (exocytosis)

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58

what organelles are apart of the endomembrane sysyem

nuclear envelope ER Golgic apparatus lysosomes vacuoles plasma membrane

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59

fluid mosaic model

model that describes the arrangement and movement of the molecules that make up a cell membrane proteins + lipids will combine

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60

integral proteins

"gateway to cell" occupy hydrophilic and hydrophobic interior of the membrane

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transmembrane proteins

Integral proteins that span the membrane.

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integral and transmembrane proteins are ___

amphipathic (hydrophilic + hydrophobic parts)

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peripheral proteins

bound to the surface of the membrane

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transport proteins

allow passage of hydrophilic substances across membrane

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65

influence of temperature on lipids

in cold, lipids are less fluid

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phospholipids ___ head

hydrophobic

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phospholipid ___ tail

hydrophilic

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cholesterol

moderates fluidity at different temperatures

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69

6 functions of membrane proteins

  1. Transport

  2. Enzymatic activity

  3. Signal transduction

  4. Cell to cell recognition

  5. Intercellular joining

  6. Attachment to cytoskeleton and ECM

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70

passive transport

the movement of substances across a cell membrane without the use of energy by the cell

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diffusion

molecules spread out evenly into available space molecules move DOWN concentration gradient (high to low)

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dynamic equilibrium

number of molecules moving from left to right is equal

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osmosis

Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane

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74

aquaporins

allow water to flow in and out of cells

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facilitated diffusion

Movement of molecules along concentration gradient (selective)

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channel proteins

transport protein lets water or small ions through membrane quickly

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carrier proteins

bind specific solutes and transfer them across the lipid bilayer change shape

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tonicity

the ability of a surrounding solution to cause a cell to gain or lose water

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hypertonic

Solute concentration is greater than that inside the cell; cell loses water

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hypotonic

Solute concentration is less than that inside the cell; cell gains water

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isotonic

Solute concentration is the same as that inside the cell

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active transport

moves substances across membrane against their concentration gradient requires energy (ATP)

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83

sodium-potassium pump

exchanges Na+ for K+ across the plasma membrane of animal cells

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84

electrogenic pump

a transport protein that generates voltage across a membrane

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85

membrane potential

voltage across membrane

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86

cotransport

The connecting parts of the "downhill" diffusion of one substance to the "uphill" transport of another against its own concentration gradient.

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87

bulk transport

requires energy large molecules cross membrane

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exocytosis

endomembrane system transport vesicles go to membrane, fuse with it, and release its contents

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endocytosis

process by which a cell takes material into the cell by infolding of the cell membrane

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90

phagocytosis

"cellular eating"

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91

pinocytosis

"cellular drinking"

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92

receptor-mediated endocytosis

import macromolecules from the extracellular fluid

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93

local signaling animal cells

gap junctions

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94

local signaling plant cells

plasmodesmata

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95

paracrine signaling

Signal released from a cell has an effect on neighboring cells. animal cells travel short distances

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96

hormones

long distance signaling hormone molecules are released that travel via circulatory system can bind to the membrane or pass through the membrane

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reception

detection of signal

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transduction

conversion of the signal to a cellular response, via a signal transduction pathway

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99

response

response to signal

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100

ligand

signal molecule

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