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geography 305 ut austin final exam notes- focusing on week 13 onwards and some from earlier weeks

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masters of arts candidate on the Home Range Analysis of White Lipped Peccaries in Goias, Brazil

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What does ag use result in?

smaller home ranges for Peccaries bc they concentrate time in ares with ag when possible

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What was Murphy’s presentation on?

Human-Environment Research on Terraced Landscapes in Southern Peru

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What is Sociomorphology?

socio-natural co-productions with complex contingent local and general event histories with specific consequences in particular places

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How do researchers better understand local (indigenous) perceptions, practices, imaginations, and knowledge of landforms and landform processes?

local knowledge

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what was the goal of her dissertation?

to focus on local knowledge of the terraced landscape to help farmers document and communicate their needs, perceptions, and practices

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what was the conclusion of her dissertation?

Social history, land tenure, kinship relations, and water availability likely are larger influences in where people decide to farm, rather than proximity to roads

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What is political geography?

a long established subfield of geography that studies the geography of politics and political matters

-borders..frontiers, international relations, gov, etc.

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what are geopolitics?

Study the relationship between geography and politics

-how the state controls space or territory and how this shapes the international political relations

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when did geopolitics begin?

late 19th century to aid to statecraft and the imperial endeavor

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what is statecraft?

the skillful management of state affairs; conducting gov. affairs

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who was Friedrich Ratzel? (1844- 04)

inspired by Charles Darwin

  • the state is a biological organism- that grew and contracted in response to external factors and forces that are natural and inevitable

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How has Europe been changing?

How European territories and boundaries \n have changed since WWI to the \n disintegration of the USSR into the CIS \n (Commonwealth of Independent States) to \n new and ongoing political tensions

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what is a current geopolitics situation?

russia and ukraine

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what does the invasion of Ukraine enforce?

the idea that resources are key

-attack on nuclear sites- destabilize energy

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what does boundary formation do?

Allows a territory to be defined and enforced -artificial

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what is a territory?

A learned cultural response, rooted \n in European history, that produced \n the external bounding and internal \n territorial organization characteristic \n of modern states

A delimited are over which a state \n exercises control and which is \n recognized by other states

≠ a sovereign nation-state that has \n the rights and protections of through \n it’s r/s with the state

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what is an inclusionary territory?

constructed to regulate and control specific sets of people and resources within them

they participate in some degree in the gov over the ruling state

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what is an exclusionary territory

controls people and resources external to them

boundaries such as national boundaries, countyboundariess, land use area,s etc

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what is a compact boundary

in theory, easier to govern and communicate \n • Capital near the center \n • No major differences in distance from center to any \n boundary \n • Eg, Brazil, France, Uruguay, Kenya

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what is an elongated boundary

• Long, narrow shape \n • Internal communications may \n be difficult \n • Capital usually near the center \n • E.g., Chile, Argentina, Malawi, \n Norway

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what is a fragmented boundary?

Has several \n discontinuous pieces of \n territory \n • Fragmented by water \n (Indonesia) \n • Fragmented by land \n – Enclave

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what is an enclave boundary

A piece of territory surrounded by, \n but not part of, a different country \n • Fragmented by land \n • E.g., Alaska, India, Lesotho

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what is a perforated boundary

country with an enclave within - south africa with the lesotho enclave

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ehtnographic boundary

pakistan and india - muslim vs hindu

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relic boundary

a former political border that no longer functions as a boundary

roman empire


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de jure territories

Nested spatial \n scales of borders and boundaries \n • Neighborhoods, cities, counties, \n states, nation-states

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cyber borders and technologies

RFID (radio frequency identification) \n – Clear Secure \n • Biometric travel document verification \n – Biometrics \n – Control of access to online content \n • China \n • Removal of TikTok by Texas Institutions

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US electoral divisions and \n college

Specific number of delegates \n allocated to each state

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Electoral Geography

The study of the interactions \n among space, place, and region \n and the conduct and results of \n elections \n Borders, Boundaries, and Territories

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• Reapportionmen

Process of allocating electoral seats to geographical areas

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The defining and redefining of territorial district boundaries \n • Both are political, geographical, and statistical exercises \n • Adjusted every 10 years based on updated census (i.e., population) \n records

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The drawing of electoral district boundaries in an awkward pattern to enhance \n the voting impact of one constituency at the expense of another \n – More on this in your discussion sections

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What is a frontier?

– Places where boundaries are weakly developed \n – Places not yet “conquered, explored, or settled” \n – Inhospitable regions with little (current) economic value \n • E.g., Sahara desert, Gobi desert \n • What frontiers still exist today? \n – Deep oceans \n – Space \n – Others

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Centralized authority that enforces a single political, economic, \n and legal system within its territorial boundaries \n – Independent political unit with recognized boundaries \n – Boundaries may be disputed \n – Often used synonymously with “country

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A group of people sharing certain elements of culture, such as \n religion, language, history, or political identity \n – Recognize a common identity \n – Do not need to reside in the same geographic area

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An independent country dominated by a relatively homogenous \n culture group \n – Created when a nation – people of a common heritage, homeland, \n memories, origin stories, language, , religion, etc – achieves \n independence as a separate country \n • Example: Japan, Germany, Finland \n • Not: USA, England, Brazil \n – Governed by their own state

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Multinational states

States composed of more than one regional or ethnic group \n – E.g., Spain, United States, Belize, UK

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Feeling or belonging to a nation \n – Belief that the nation has a natural right to determine it’s own affairs

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• Buffer state

Past: Marchland \n • A strip of territory, traditionally \n 1 day’s march, that served as a \n buffer or boundary zone \n between independent counties \n in pre-modern times \n – Now: Buffer state \n • An independent but small and \n weak country lying between \n two powerful countries \n • E.g., Mongolia between Russia \n and China

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Satellite state

Small weak country dominated by one powerful neighbor to the extent that \n some or much of its independence is lost

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Three theorists

Louis Althusser

Michel Foucault \n Giles Deleuze

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Louis Althusser

Sees the state as operating through its \n institutions in two ways: \n • through the schools, media, family, \n and religion, the state exercises an \n ideological force that produces \n citizens who conform to state \n expectations \n • through the courts, the army, and \n the police, the state exercises a \n repressive force to compel citizens \n to comply with its rules

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Michel Foucault

Considers how knowledge, power, and \n discourse operate together to produce \n particular kinds of subjects \n • Discourse includes the rules, \n identities, practices, exclusions, and \n other elements that form a way of \n thinking about something. \n • Power therefore operates in day-to- \n day interactions between people and \n institutions that create particular \n ways of thinking.

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Giles Deleuze

Conceptualizes the state as a force, rather \n than as a set of institutions. \n • It is not a thing, but a principle that \n works through authority \n • The state is best thought of as a machine \n that regulates and dominates \n – But does so through mundane \n practices to produce a compliant \n population that will bend to its \n authority such as teachers, forest \n rangers, or political leaders

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origins of the state

form of social and political organization with a formal, central gov and a society with classes

-chiefdoms were precursors to state

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elite levels existed by?

7000 BP in the middle east

3200 bp in mesoamerica

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what grew as food production spread


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what develops to handle regulatory problems

systems of political authority

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what is a primary state

arose on their own and not through contact with other state societies

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what states emerged from competition among chiefdoms

1st gen states developed in egypt, mesopotamia, the indus river valley, nothern china, mesoamerica, and the andes

-mult factors always contribute to state formation

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how does regional trade affect state formation

some states emerged at strategic locations in regional trade networks

long-distance trade was important in the formation of many states

long-distance trade also exists in societies where no states developed

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what are supranational orgs

closely linked to globalization and capitalism

group of independent countries joined together for purposes of mutual interest

maintain individual sovereignty but work together, collectively, in the interests of entire memberships

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examples of supranational orgs

league of nations, eu, un, wto

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what is a league?

a supranational orgz

league of nations (1920-1946)

--united nations (1945-present)

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what is a confederation?

group of states united for a common purpose

-commonwealth of independent studies (cis)

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-BREXIT - 31 JAN 2020


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how is power seen through an anthropological perspective?

power and authority are interlinked power- the ability to exercise one’s will over others

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what is a unitary state?

power is concentrated in the central gov, which has complete authority over all other political divisions

  • Russia under a czar, UK, China

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what is a federal state?

allocated power to local units of gov within the country

  • ISA

  • fed gov laws

  • but also state laws

  • dont align at times

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what is a government?

the norms, rules, regulations, and laws invoked to regulate a people or state

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what is a governance?

the process of making and enforcing decisions within an org or society

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power concentrated in one person

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ppl participate equally

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few ppl have power

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Governance (political geographies) and \n cultural landscapes (cultural geographies)

– Iconography of presidents creating a political \n landscape symbolizing freedom and democracy. \n • 4 presidents: Washington, Jefferson, Roosevelt, \n & Lincoln

  • Statue of Liberty as a symbol of the US both \n culturally and politically as a universal symbol \n of freedom

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what is imperialism?

the extension of state authority over the political and economic life of other territories

shift since the colmbian exchange (500 years ago)

  • globalization

not always formal gov control

-pressure to behave a certain way, allow access to resources -military threat

involves authoritative control

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what is colonialism?

form of imperialism

-formal establishment and maintenance of rule over a foreign pop

-establishment of settlements in foreign lands

-colonization was an important part of core nation expansions

-voyages of \n Exploration for \n Colonial Capitalism \n – Urban Center vs \n hinterland

Primary colonizing states: \n Britain, Spain, Portugal, \n France, the Netherlands

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what is Mercantilism?

Trade generates wealth \n – Government maximizes \n exports and reduces \n imports

Promotes colonialism, \n imperialism, and tariffs on \n imported trade goods

Thomas Mun

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steps in process of exploration

need in the home country


develop area

look elsewhere

extract resources

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why did spain and portugal colomize

mineral resources

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european colonies in africa

resource extraction, mining, land, labor


1914-liberia and Ethiopia independent

liberia under us control from 1822-47

ethiopia fell under italian control for 2 years 42-44

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what were independence movements influence by

developments in India and Pakistan

independence from European control 1950-70s

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Effects of Colonialism

Long term power dynamics \n • Some colonized countries are now core nations: E.g., USA, Australia \n • Many are semi-periphery or peripheral nations \n – Power influenced permeated all aspects of daily life \n • E.g., British rule in India resulted in many deaths as society was transformed by British rule \n • Identity \n • Migration

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Reacquisition of and control over territory by colonized peoples

changing borders and boundaries

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league of nations 1920s

Supranational \n organization \n – Designed to help \n countries as they \n transitioned to \n independence \n – Predecessor to the \n United Nations \n – Helped maintain \n peace \n – Dissolved in 1946

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Theorist Edward Said (1935 – 2003) \n • Palestinian American Professor at Columbia University \n • Bi-cultural perspectives \n • Orientalism (1978)

Positions the West as culturally superior to the East \n – Eastern cultures as unchanging and undeveloped \n – Exaggerates the differences in cultures \n – Long historical trajectory of the West trying to \n dominate the east \n • Since Classical periods ~500 BCE

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Orientalism is a foundational document for post-colonialism

Frameworks and method for answering how and why the east is portrayed \n differentially than the west

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Academic discipline that focuses on the cultural legacies of colonialism and \n imperialism \n Colonization and Imperialism \n • 1947 – Colonial India → India & Pakistan \n • 1971 → Bangladesh \n • Conflicts \n – Punjab among Sikh and Islamic \n communities \n – Hindus and Muslims \n • Not just colonialism – also consider how the \n Hindu Caste system impacted these events

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Global North and Global South divide

North = imperial states of Europe, Russia, USA, Canada (many core nations!) \n • Also includes Australia and New Zealand (geographically South, \n economically part of the Global North) \n Colonization and Imperialism \n – South = states that were \n colonized (many \n peripheral nations) \n – Political independences ≠ \n economic independence \n • Global South relies heavily \n on the Global North for \n economic goods \n – Long-term trickle-down \n effect of colonization and \n economic development

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East/West Divide

Rather than economic in nature (N/S divide), political in nature \n – Communist vs non-communist countries \n – Global politics since 1917, and especially post WWII \n – Fear that as decolonization occurred, newly independent countries would \n chose communism as their form of government \n – Cuba, China, Russia

Communism: a political and \n economic ideology that position \n itself in opposition to liberal \n democracy and capitalism. \n Advocates for a class-less system \n whereby means of production is \n communally owned. Property is \n publicly owned

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East/West Divide – Case study: Cuba

Colonized by Spain (political and economic in nature), interest by the USA \n • 1902: independence \n – Post 1902: USA imperialism (economic in nature) \n – 1950s: Fidel Castro and communism \n • USA is anticommunist => military aggression towards Cuba \n – 2000s onward: changing political r/s

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East/West divide & fear of \n communism => Domino Theory

If one country in a region chose \n communism, nearby countries would \n follow suit \n – Resulted in US wars in Korea, \n Vietnam, Laos, Nicaragua, and El \n Salvador \n – Resulted in a genocide in Cambodia

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East/West divide & fear of communism => Supranational \n organizations and opportunities for peripheral nations \n \n

– Encouraged trade among core and peripheral nations = $$$ \n – If they changed to communism, they risked being part of the booming global \n economy \n – Strengthened the position of the [political] West \n – New World Order \n • US President George H.W. Bush 1991 \n • Capitalism over communism

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The treat or use of force to bring \n about political change \n – Often actions against civilian \n populations \n – Violent actions against society by \n the state \n – Examples: 9/11, Oklahoma City \n Bombing \n – Consider long-term effects of \n these actions \n – TSA at the airport created in \n response to 9/1

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Case study of the US banana industry and Latin America

Sam Zemurray (1877 – 1961) \n • Founded Cuyamel Fruit Company \n • President of United Fruit Company \n • “Sam the Banana Man” \n – Developed land in Honduras for banana plantation \n • Railroads, roads, infrastructure \n – 1912: increase in taxes in Honduras

Helped engineer an uprising in Honduras and install Manuel Bonilla as \n president of Honduras

1954: CIA with the help of the banana industry helped a coup in Guatemala

Banana Republic: a politically and economically unstable country with an \n economy almost entirely based on the export of a single resource or product \n that is typically foreign owned

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what is urbanization

– Concerned with the similarities and differences among and within urban \n places \n – Increases the proportion of the population living in cities \n – Increases in the size of cities \n – Changes in society structure including politics \n – Changes in economics structure

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V. Gordan Childe 10 characteristics of urban society

Increase in settlement size toward “urban proportions” \n – Centralized accumulation of capital resulting from the imposition of tribute \n or taxation \n – Monumental public works \n – Invention of writing \n – Advances toward exact and predictive science \n – Appearance and growth of long-distance trade in luxuries \n – Emergence of class-stratified society \n – Freeing of a part of the population from subsistence tasks for full-time craft \n specialization \n – Substitution of a political organized society based on territorial principles, \n the state, for one based on kin ties \n – Appearance of naturalist or representational art


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What is an urban system?

an interdependent set of urban settlements within a region


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what is urban form

physical structure of a city including org, layout, and built environment

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Urban in one place may not \n seem “urban” in another

Density of urban place



– People per km2 \n • Connections: Population and \n Migration

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Urban population

proportion of a countries population living in \n cities \n • Percent of population living in urban settlements in 2009

75% of pop. Living in \n urban areas \n • <40% living in urban \n areas

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Rates of urban growth from 2000 – 2010

Highest growth in Africa and Asia!

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Functions of Urban Settlements

Mobilizing function

Decision-making capacity \n Generative functions \n Transformative capacity

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mobilizing function

Cities provide efficient and effective environments for organizing labor, capital, and raw materials \n • Hot spots for corporations, universities, banks, research labs, specialized \n manufacturing \n • Ease of travel and transportations due to connected networks

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Decision-making capacity

Political hubs & government centers \n • Attract thinkers and innovators

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Generative functions

Concentration of people → \n greater interaction and \n competition \n • Arenas of cultural production \n and innovation \n • Density and diversity → \n increased creativity and \n innovation

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Transformative capacity

size, density, and variety → liberating effect \n • People can explore their cultural and social preferences \n • Demographic heterogeneity encourages different ways of thinking

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Scales of urbanism exist on a continuum


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scales of inequality exist on a continuum

many ways to measure this (economic development)

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