Science Exam

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Cytoplasm

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158 Terms

1

Cytoplasm

Fluid substance in a cell

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Golgi bodies

Collects & processes materials to be removed from the cell

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3

Cell membrane

Supports the cell, & controls movement of materials in & out of cell

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4

Mitochondria

Powerhouse of the cell

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5

Vacuole

Role varies, but animals have several small ones & plants have one large one

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6

Nucleus

Manages the cell activities, including life activity

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7

Nuclear membrane

Protective layer of the nucleus

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8

Chloroplast

Creates chlorophyll in plant cells, used for photosynthesis

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9

Ribosome

Creates protein

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10

Cell wall

Protects the plant cell

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11
  1. Cells are the simplest form of life

  2. All living organisms made up of one or more cells

  3. All cells come from other cells

Cell theory

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12

Organelles

Parts of a cell that perform a specific function

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13

Why do cells divide?

Reproduce, grow, repair damage

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14

What do cells need to survive?

Energy, nutrients, water, gases

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15

Cell cycle

Interphase, mitosis, cytokinesis

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16

Interphase

Cell prepares for division

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17

Mitosis

Division of DNA

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18

Prophase

Chromosomes form and centrioles move to poles

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19

Metaphase

Spindle fibres are produced from the centrioles, chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell

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20

Anaphase

Centromere splits and chromatids are pulled apart by the spindle fibres

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21

Telophase

Nuclear membrane forms & chromosomes unravel

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22

Cytokinesis

Cytoplasm divides to create 2 daugh

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23

What is cancer?

A disease in which cells divide uncontrollably

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24

What causes cancer?

Hereditary (inheritance) and carcinogens

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25

Malignant tumor

Cancer where it does damage to the surrounding cells

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Benign tumor

Cancer is still present, but it is not damaging surrounding cells

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How to diagnose cancer

Blood tests, X-rays

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28

How to treat cancer

Surgery, chemo, radiation

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29

Components of blood

Plasma, platelets, white and red blood cells

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30

White blood cells

Build up our immune system, fight off diseases and illnesses

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Red blood cells

Carry oxygen to cells

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32

Bone cells

Build up our skeletal system, receive calcium intake

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Fat cells

Stores fat in the body

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34

Nerve cells

Send us electrical impulses in our bodies to signal us

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35

Stem cells

Cells that can differentiate into any type of cell

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36

Cell hierarchy

Cell → Tissue → Organ → Organ System → Organism

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37

Photophore

Emits light

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38

Sperm cells

Carry DNA from males

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39

Muscle cells

Move bones

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40

Epithelial cells (skin cells)

Act as protection & prevent water loss

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41

Xylem cells (plant)

Transport water & dissolved minerals throughout the plant

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42

Phloem cells

Transport dissolved food around the plant

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43

Parenchyma cells

Have diverse functions, but also act as storage cells

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44

Guard cells

On the surface of leaves, open & close pores for transpiration

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45

Tissues

Epithelial, muscle, nerve, connective

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46

Cellular differentiation

Process that produces specialized cells

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47

Stem cells that differentiate into any kind of cell

Embryonic stem cell (baby stem cell)

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48

Stem cells that exist within a specialized tissue & only can differentiate into certain types of cells

Tissue stem cell (adult stem cell)

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49

Leukemia

Cancer in the bone marrow

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50

Regeneration

The ability of a tissue to repair itself

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51

T or F: All tissues can regenerate except nerve tissue

True

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52

Function of the mouth in the digestive system

Mechanically breaks down what we ingest

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53

Function of the esophagus in the digestive system

Connects the mouth to the stomach; made up of smooth muscle tissue

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54

Function of the stomach in the digestive system

Holds & churns what we ingest

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55

Function of the small intestine in the digestive system

Digestion & nutrient absorption occurs, mucus is secreted through its goblet cells

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Function of the large intestine in the digestive system

Absorbs water from indigestive fluid

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57

Accessory organs

Liver, pancreas, gallbladder

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58

Function of all accessory organs

Supply digestive enzymes to be released along the digestive tract

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59

The ________produces bile to be stored in the _________

liver, gallbladder

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60

Function of bile

Breaks down fat

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Function of the pancreas

Produces insulin to regulate our sugar levels

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Functions of the heart

Pumps blood throughout our body through arteries, veins, and capillaries

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Arteries

Blood vessels carrying blood away from the heart

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Veins

Blood vessels carrying blood to the heart

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Capillaries

Helps with blood exchange with substances and surrounding tissues

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66

Blood

Consists of red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets & plasma

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Platelets

Cells that help with blood clotting

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Plasma

Fluid that carries blood cells along

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Peristalsis

The process of food travelling in the esophagus to the stomach

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70

Gas exchange in the respiratory system

We inhale oxygen (O2) and exhale carbon dioxide (CO2) they both enter in the lungs by diffusion and are processed in the alveoli surrounded by capillaries

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71

What do fish have instead of lungs?

Gills

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72

Function of the diaphragm

Contracts in breathing

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73

Function of skeleton in musculoskeletal system

Provides structure and support & protects our internal organs

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74

Connective tissues in the skeleton

Bone, ligament, cartilage

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Tendon

Muscle to bone connection

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Ligament

Bone to bone connection

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Endoskeleton

Skeleton placed inside the body

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78

Exoskeleton

Skeleton placed outside the body

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79

Nervous system parts

Central nervous system, peripheral nervous system

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80

Consists of the brain & spinal cord

Central nervous system

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81

Made up of nerves that carry signals between CNS & body

Peripheral nervous system

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82

Functions of the three nerves in the PNS

Control voluntary muscles, carry info from the sensory organs to the brain, regulate involuntary functions

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83

What is nerve tissue comprised of?

Neurons

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84

Axon

Part of a neuron

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85

Myelin sheath

String covered in fatty tissue connecting nerve cells

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86

Sensory receptors

Specialized cells that sense sound, pressure, temperature & pain

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87

2 body systems of the plant

Shoot system & root system

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88

3 plant tissues

Dermal, vascular, ground

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89

Dermal tissue of plant

Tissues that cover outer surface of plant

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90

Vascular tissue of plant

Conducts materials

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91

Ground tissue of plant

Manages what the dermal & vascular tissue doesn’t

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92

Stores food, absorbs water & nutrients, anchors plant; underground plant system

Root system

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93

Conducts photosynthesis, produces flowers for reproduction & made of the leaf, flower & stem; above ground system

Shoot system

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94

3 requirements of photosynthesis

Absorb CO2, absorb H2O, absorb light

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95

What is photosynthesis?

Process in which plants convert light energy → chemical energy needed to live

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96

Metastasis

Process of malignant tumor spreading

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97

What is an ion?

Charged particles that occur when an atom gains or loses one or more electrons

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98

What happens to a metal or non-metal when becoming an ion?

May become more positively charged or more negatively charged

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99

Atmospheric conditions in a particular location over a short period of time

Weather

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100

Pattern of weather over a long period of time, determines the life that lives there

Climate

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