HTWH Midterm

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Empire

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121 Terms

1

Empire

A group of states or territories controlled by one ruler

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2

Roman Empire

Existed from 27 BCE to about 400 CE. Conquiered entire Mediterranean coast and most of Europe. Ruled by an emperor. Eventually oversaw the rise and spread of Christianity.

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3

Polytheism

Belief in many gods

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4

Monotheism

Belief in one God

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5

Colesseum

a large amphitheater in Rome that held deadly gladiatorial games

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6

Pax Romana

Roman Peace

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7

Western Roman Empire

Branch of the empire with Rome as capital (destroyed in 476 A.D)

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8

Eastern Roman Empire

also known as the Byzantine empire; used mostly Greek language and culture; capital-Constantinople (new Rome); enjoyed benefit of Mediterranean trade;

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9

Constantine

Emperor of Rome who adopted the Christian faith and stopped the persecution of Christians (280-337)

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10

Rome

Capital of Italy

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11

Constantinople

City founded as the second capital of the Roman Empire; later became the capital of the Byzantine Empire

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12

Why did the Roman Empire fall?

Disease, corruption, and increased taxes

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13

Byzantine Empire

(330-1453) The eastern half of the Roman Empire, which survived after the fall of the Western Empire at the end of the 5th century C.E. Its capital was Constantinople, named after the Emperor Constantine.

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14

Justinian

Byzantine emperor in the 6th century A.D. who reconquered much of the territory previously ruler by Rome, initiated an ambitious building program , including Hagia Sofia, as well as a new legal code

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15

Theodora

the wife of Justinian, she helped to improve the status of women in the Byzantinian Empire and encouraged her husband to stay in Constntinople and fight the Nike Revolt.

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16

Justinian's Code

Laws of the byzantine empire based the twelve tables of Roman law, became a basis for laws in many European nations

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17

Judaism

A religion with a belief in one god. It originated with Abraham and the Hebrew people. Yahweh was responsible for the world and everything within it. They preserved their early history in the Old Testament.

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18

Christianity

A monotheistic system of beliefs and practices based on the Old Testament and the teachings of Jesus as embodied in the New Testament and emphasizing the role of Jesus as savior.

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19

Feudalism

A political system in which nobles are granted the use of lands that legally belong to their king, in exchange for their loyalty, military service, and protection of the people who live on the land

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20

Serf

A person who is bound to the land and owned by the feudal lord

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21

Knight

A man who received honor and land in exchange for serving a lord as a soldier.

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22

Noble

a person of high rank by birth or title

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23

King

highest-ranking leader of a group of people

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24

Pope

Head of the Roman Catholic Church

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25

Vassal

A knight who promised to support a lord in exchange for land

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26

Fief

land granted by a lord to a vassal in exchange for loyalty and service

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27

Islam

A religion based on the teachings of the prophet Mohammed which stresses belief in one god (Allah), Paradise and Hell, and a body of law written in the Quran. Followers are called Muslims.

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28

Byzantine Innovations

Flame thrower, spoon, mosaics, domes, grenades

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29

Muhhamad

Founder of Islam

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30

Sunni

A branch of Islam whose members acknowledge the first four caliphs as the rightful successors of Muhammad

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31

Shi'a

the branch of Islam whose members acknowledge Ali and his descendants as the rightful successors of Muhammad

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32

Abbasid

Dynasty that succeeded the Umayyads as caliphs within Islam; came to power in 750 C.E.

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33

Umayyad

the first dynasty of Arab caliphs whose capital was Damascus

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34

Islamic Golden Age

period of 750 years when islam contributed greatly to med., science, philosophy, and architecture

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35

Mecca

Holy city of Islam

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36

Medina

City in western Arabia to which the Prophet Muhammad and his followers emigrated in 622 to escape persecution in Mecca.

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37

Arabesque

complex, ornate design

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38

Bazzar

A market selling different kinds of goods

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39

Caliph

A supreme political and religious leader in a Muslim government

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40

Mongols

People from Central Asia when united ended up creating the largest single land empire in history.

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41

Nomads

people who wander from place to place, follow food source

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42

Chinggis Khan

Born in 1170s in decades following death of Kabul Khan; elected khagan of all Mongol tribes in 1206; responsible for conquest of northern kingdoms of China, territories as far west as the Abbasid regions; died in 1227, prior to conquest of most of Islamic world.

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43

Temujin

Genghis Khan's real name

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44

Khanate

regional Mongol empires that arose following the death of Chinggis Khan

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45

Types of Government

Democracy, Monarchy, Dictatorship, Oligarchy, Theocracy

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46

Sparta

Greek city-state that was ruled by an oligarchy, focused on military, used slaves for agriculture, discouraged the arts, worshiped Ares

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47

Athens

A democratic Greek polis who accomplished many cultural achievements, and who were constantly at war with Sparta, worshiped Athena

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48

Erastosthenes

This ancient scholar calculated the circumference of the earth using shadows, described it as a sphere

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49

Origin story

a story in which an explanation of how something came to be is given, used to create laws/rules in societies

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50

Zeus

King of the gods

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51

City state

a city that with its surrounding territory forms an independent state

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52

Polis

Greek city-state

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53

Acropolis

Highest part of the polis, could be closer to the gods, used for religious purposes, government meetings

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54

Agora

a public open space used for assemblies and markets

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55

Greece location

Europe, Rocky & steep terrain, mountains kept city states isolated from each other, peninsula

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56

Polytheistic

Belief in many gods

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57

Hinduism

A religion and philosophy developed in ancient India, characterized by a belief in reincarnation and a supreme being who takes many forms

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58

Chief gods of Hinduism

Brahma (creator), Vishnu (preserver), Shiva (destroyer)

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59

Vedas

Ancient Sanskrit writings that are the earliest sacred texts of Hinduism

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60

Origin of Hinduism

Indus River Valley

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61

Brahman

A single spiritual power that Hindus believe lives in everything

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62

Caste System

A Hindu social class system that controlled every aspect of daily life, no social mobility

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63

2 lowest parts of the Caste system

Sudra (common people) and Dalit (untouchables)

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64

Karma

The belief that actions in this life, whether good or bad, will decide your place in the next life

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65

Dharma

a person's religious and moral duties

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66

Henotheistic

the worship of one god without denying the existence of other gods

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67

Brahmin

the highest of the four classes of the caste system, traditionally made up of priests

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68

Rama

Incarnation of Hindu god Vishnu made famous in the Ramayana

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69

Ramanyana

An epic poem that had a decisive influence in shaping the Indian civilization, It tells the story of a prince on a journey to save his princess who was captured by the evil king

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70

Moksha

Becoming liberated for the cycle of reincarnation in Hinduism, final peace

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71

Moksha potam

board game that represents moving up in the caste system to reach moksha, reincarnation through karma

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72

Buddhism

the teaching of Buddha that life is permeated with suffering caused by desire, that suffering ceases when desire ceases, and that enlightenment obtained through right conduct and wisdom and meditation releases one from desire and suffering and rebirth

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73

Siddhartha Gautama

The prince who is said to have founded Buddhism

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74

The Buddha

Means "Enlightened One," he is said to have found a path for overcoming suffering

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75

The 4 Noble truths

Core of Buddha's doctrine; all life involves suffering, desire is the cause of suffering, elimination of desire brings the end to suffering, and disciplined life conducted in accordance with the Eightfold Path brings elimination of desire

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76

Nirvana

a condition of great peace or happiness

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77

Eightfold Path

In Buddhism, the basic rules of behavior and belief leading to an end of suffering

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78

the Edicts of Ashoka

A moral code created by Ashoka of the Muaryan dynasty in India related to public welfare and foster just government

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79

Ashoka

Leader of the Mauryan dynasty of India who conquered most of India but eventually gave up violence and converted to Buddhism, guilt

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80

Year Hinduism began

pre- 18th century

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81

Year Buddhism began

6th century BCE

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82

Sanskrit

First written language of India, Indus River Valley

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83

Confucious

A Chinese philosopher of the Zhou Dynasty, developed a code of behavior based on old traditions, good behavior, and truth

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84

Confucianism

The system of ethics, education, and statesmanship taught by Confucius and his disciples, stressing love for humanity, ancestor worship, reverence for parents, and harmony in thought and conduct

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85

Han Dynasty

imperial dynasty that ruled China (most of the time) from 206 BC to 221 and expanded its boundaries and developed its bureaucracy, Confucious, gov. positions based on merit

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86

Zhou Dynasty

A decentralized Chinese dynasty in China because of the massive size, and whose emperor was the first to claim to be a link between heaven and earth. Iron metallurgy increased in this dynasty

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87

Qin Dynasty

(221-207 BCE) The first centralized dynasty of China that used Legalism as its base of belief

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88

Legalism

the belief that people were bad by nature and needed to be controlled through fear

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89

Han Feizi

Chinese philosopher who promoted Legalism as governing paradigm

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90

5 constant relationships

used as a general rule of respect, such as parent-child or ruler-subject

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91

Prehistory

the period of time before written records

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92

Old Stone Age

Paleolithic Age

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93

New Stone Age

Neolithic Age

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94

Agricultural Evolution

transition from a hunter-gatherer lifestyle to an agricultural way of life

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95

Domestication

the process of changing plants or animals to make them more useful to humans

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96

Mesopotamia

Land between two rivers, fertile soil made easy farming and irrigation systems

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97

Hammurabi

He was the first person to write down a legal code in early Babylon that gave punishment based on crime and social status

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98

Location

the position that something occupies on Earth's surface

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99

Place

a particular position or point in space

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100

Region

An area distinguished by a unique combination of trends or features

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