CHAP 29 - HUMAN DEVELOPMENT AND AGING

studied byStudied by 1 person
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

The primary germ layers include the mesoderm, the endoderm and the ___

1 / 143

encourage image

There's no tags or description

Looks like no one added any tags here yet for you.

144 Terms

1

The primary germ layers include the mesoderm, the endoderm and the ___

ectoderm

New cards
2

After ejaculation and during sperm migration, what occurs that allows a sperm to penetrate an egg?


Capacitation


New cards
3

Following fertilization, the genetic material of each gamete is contained within which of the following?


Pronucleus

New cards
4

Match each stage of the gestational period to its time frame.

  • Fetal Stage

  • Preembryonic stage

  • Embryonic Stage

  • Fetal Stage - week 8 to week 38

  • Preembryonic stage - day 0 to day 16

  • Embryonic Stage - day 16 to week 18

New cards
5

The first 16 days of development is called which stage?


Preembryonic

New cards
6

What are the three primary germ layers?

Ectoderm

Endoderm

Ethryderm

Myoderm

Mesoderm

Ectoderm

Endoderm

Mesoderm

New cards
7

What is the correct order of development during the preembryonic stage?


Zygote, morula, blastocyst


New cards
8

During sperm migration, the membrane of the sperm head becomes more fragile. This change is part of a process called

capacitation

New cards
9

What are the cells formed by the first cleavage of the fertilized egg called?


Blastomeres

New cards
10

What is a zygote?


A fertilized egg


New cards
11

In which embryonic stage is an offspring during the third trimester?


Fetal

New cards
12

During which prenatal stage do cleavage and implantation occur?


Preembryonic stage

New cards
13

The process by which a blastocyst attaches to the lining of the uterus is called

implantation

New cards
14

The ____ stage of development comprises the first 16 days of pregnancy.

preembryonic

New cards
15

What is the cell division that occurs in the earliest stages of zygote development called?


Cleavage

New cards
16

A single-celled, fertilized egg is known as a(n)

zygote

New cards
17

Which developmental stage is complete once the blastomeres arrange to form the three primary germ layers?


Embryogenesis

New cards
18


What is the process in which cells migrate to form the three primary germ layers called?

Gastrulation

New cards
19

When does implantation normally occur?


Day 6 after ovulation


New cards
20

What is the outermost germ layer?


Ectoderm

New cards
21

Which prenatal stage occurs between fertilization and implantation?


Preembryonic

New cards
22

The term ____ refers to the mitotic divisions that occur in the first three days after fertilization.

Cleavage

New cards
23

In which process do the germ layers differentiate into organs and organ systems?


Organogenesis

New cards
24

What is embryogenesis?


The arrangement of a blastomere into 3 primary germ layers

New cards
25

During the embryonic stage, what forms on the uterine wall?


Placenta

New cards
26

The ____ is the germ layer that will form, among other structures, the inner layer of the digestive tract.

endoderm

New cards
27

The folding of the lateral margins of the embryonic disc around the sides of the yolk sac encloses a longitudinal channel known as the primitive ____

gut

New cards
28

Choose all that are functions of amniotic fluid.

-To allow development of the lungs

-To protect the fetus from temperature fluctuations

-To protect the fetus from trauma

-To produce blood during the early stages of development

-To allow development of the lungs

-To protect the fetus from temperature fluctuations

-To protect the fetus from trauma

New cards
29

The process of ____ is the differentiation of the primary germ layers into organ and organ systems.

organogenesis

New cards
30

The ____ sac arises from cells of the hypoblast and produces the first blood cells.

yolk

New cards
31

When does the embryonic stage of development begin?

When the three germ layers are first present, at about 16 days


New cards
32

What are the endoderm, ectoderm, and mesoderm?


Primary germ layers

New cards
33

The folding of the lateral margins of the embryonic disc around the sides of the yolk sac encloses a longitudinal channel known as which of the following?


Primitive gut

New cards
34

Which structure is attached to the uterine wall and provides nutrients to the developing fetus?


Placenta

New cards
35

At term, how much amniotic fluid is in the amniotic cavity?


700 to 1000 mL

New cards
36

Which forms the foundation for the umbilical cord and the part of the urinary bladder?


Allantois

New cards
37

Placental nutrition reaches the developing conceptus via a tube of blood vessels called the ____ cord

umbilical

New cards
38

During the embryonic stage, what forms on the uterine wall?


Placenta

New cards
39

At about 8 weeks and once all organs system are present, a conceptus is then called a(n)

Fetus

New cards
40

Decidual cells of the endometrium play what role during early development?


They nourish the conceptus.;

After implantation the conceptus receives trophoblastic nutrition consisting of decidual cells of the endometrium.

New cards
41

The ____ is a disc-shaped organ attached to the uterine wall that provides nutrition to the fetus via the umbilical cord.

placenta

New cards
42

In the developing fetus, blood from the umbilical vein bypasses the liver and empties directly into the vena cava by way of a vessel called the ductus
____

venosus

New cards
43

The function of ____ fluid is to protect the embryo from infection, trauma, and temperature fluctuations, allow freedom of movement, and allow development of the lungs.

amniotic

New cards
44
<p>In the figure, the ductus venosus is labeled ____</p>

In the figure, the ductus venosus is labeled ____

B

New cards
45

The blood vessels within the umbilical cord include two umbilical ____ and one ____.

arteries, vein

New cards
46

An infant up to 4 weeks old is classified as a(n)

neonate

New cards
47

During development, an individual is known as what from the beginning of the ninth week through birth?


Fetus

New cards
48

For the first 8 weeks after implantation, the conceptus is nourished by which type of nutrition?


Trophoblastic

New cards
49

A neonate's first breath requires a large effort to inflate its collapsed alveoli.


True;

Because the lungs are non-functioning in utero, the alveoli in a fullterm neonate are collapsed. It does require significant effort to expand them.

New cards
50

During fetal development, blood from the umbilical cord flows directly into the vena cava bypassing the liver via which vessel?


Ductus venosus


New cards
51

The proximal part of each umbilical artery becomes what after birth?


Superior vesical artery

New cards
52

In the figure, the umbilical artery is labeled

D

New cards
53

What is an infant up to 6 weeks old called?


Neonate


New cards
54

An infant weighing under 2.5 kg (5.5 lbs) is considered __________

premature

New cards
55

What is a fetus?


A conceptus after 8 weeks of development


New cards
56

In the first two weeks following birth, about how many breaths per minute does a neonate take?


45

New cards
57

In some neonates, the foramen ovale does not close to form the fossa ovalis. This is an example of which of the following?


Congenital anomaly;

A congenital anomaly is the abnormal structure or position of an organ at birth.

New cards
58

Why does the pathway of circulation change after birth?


To allow gas exchange to occur in the new environment

New cards
59
<p>In the figure, the ductus venosus is labeled <span><br></span></p>

In the figure, the ductus venosus is labeled

b

New cards
60

An infant is considered premature if they are under which weight?


2.5 kg (5.5 lbs)


New cards
61

The study of birth defects is known as

teratology

New cards
62

During development, an individual is known as what from the beginning of the ninth week through birth?


Fetus

New cards
63

Agents that cause anatomical deformities in the fetus are called

teratogen

New cards
64

A congenital anomaly is also called what?

A birth defect


New cards
65

The substance that causes more birth defects than any other drug is

alcohol

New cards
66

The proximal part of each umbilical artery becomes what after birth?


New cards
67

Choose four signs of fetal alcohol syndrome.


Webbed toes

Small head

Hyperactivity

Poor attention span

Malformed facial features

Gigantism

Small head

Hyperactivity

Poor attention span

Malformed facial features

New cards
68
<p>In the figure, the umbilical vein is labeled <span><br></span></p>

In the figure, the umbilical vein is labeled

C

New cards
69

What does teratology study?


Birth defects

New cards
70

Environmental agents that cause mutations are called what?


Mutagens

New cards
71

What is a teratogen?


What is a teratogen?


New cards
72

What causes more birth defects than any other drug?


Alcohol

New cards
73

The failure of homologous chromosomes to separate during meiosis is known as

Nondisjunction

New cards
74

Which disorder is characterized by a small head, cleft palate, cardiac and central nervous system defects, malformed facial features, and behavioral signs including hyperactivity, and poor attention span?


Fetal alcohol syndrome

New cards
75

The term ____ refers to an abnormal number of chromosomes

Aneuploidy

New cards
76

Any change in the structure of a chromosome or a DNA molecule, often resulting in a change of organismal structure or function is known as a(n)

mutations

New cards
77

If during meiosis II nondisjunction occurred and the resulting zygote had only a single copy of chromosome 14, this would be an example of which of the following?


Monosomy 14


New cards
78

Agents that cause anatomical deformities in the fetus are called

teratogen

New cards
79

The condition of having three copies of a chromosome is known as

trisomy

New cards
80

What is the failure of homologous chromosomes to separate during meiosis called?


Nondisjunction

New cards
81

Monosomy


Monosomy is when a cell lack a chromosome. It is one potential result of nondisjunction which is the failure of homologous chromosomes to separate.

New cards
82

Aneuploidy

Aneuploidy or the presence of an extra chromosome or the lack of a chromosome is the result of nondisjunction which is the failure of homologous chromosomes to separate.

New cards
83

The anomaly that results from when a zygote has 3 X chromosomes is called ____

triplo x syndrome

New cards
84

The presence of an extra chromosome or lack of one is called what?


Aneuploidy

New cards
85

Klinefelter syndrome results from which genotype?


XXY;

XYY results in XYY syndrome, XO results in Turner syndrome and XXX results in triplo-X syndrome.

New cards
86
<p>In the figure, the ductus arteriosus is labeled <span><br></span></p>

In the figure, the ductus arteriosus is labeled

A

New cards
87

Which disorder results from having three copies of chromosome 21?


Down syndrome

New cards
88

What is monosomy?


The lack of a chromosome

New cards
89

The term ____ refers to the degenerative changes that occur with aging.

senescence

New cards
90

What is trisomy?


The presence of an extra chromosome


New cards
91

Which degenerates at a faster rate?


Glomeruli of kidneys

New cards
92

Which disorder is associated with the presence of three X chromosomes?


trisomy X

New cards
93

The syndrome that results when a zygote has 2 X chromosomes and a Y chromosome is called ____ syndrome

Klinefelter

New cards
94

What is the genotype of someone with Down syndrome?


Trisomy 21


New cards
95

Why does hair turn grey?


Melanocytes die out.


New cards
96

The degeneration that occur in an organ system after its peak functional age is called what?


Senescence

New cards
97

Aging changes that occur naturally over the course of time are called what?


Intrinsic

New cards
98

Which describes the relative senescence of different organ systems?


Organ systems degenerate at different rates.

New cards
99

Bone loss that is severe enough to compromise physical health and activity is known as

Osteoporosis

New cards
100

Which disorder is characterized by the presence of XXY, resulting in a sterile male with underdeveloped testis, abnormal breast development, and unusually long arms and legs?


Klinefelter syndrome

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 14 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 15 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 8 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 13 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 139 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(3)
note Note
studied byStudied by 68 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard51 terms
studied byStudied by 94 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard54 terms
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard38 terms
studied byStudied by 13 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard452 terms
studied byStudied by 67 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard30 terms
studied byStudied by 43 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard51 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard41 terms
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard32 terms
studied byStudied by 17 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)