isat 100 final kariim

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What is sustainability?

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163 Terms

1

What is sustainability?

meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs

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2

When did modern science begin?

~300 years go

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3

Who were two ancient philosophers?

Galileo and Newton

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4

What does good science require?

sharp observational skills, healthy skepticism

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5

What is the nature of science?

based on investigations and evidence

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6

What are the steps of the scientific method?

  1. Observe2) Form a hypothesis3) Make a prediction4) Experiment5) Report Publish OR5) Start over

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7

Phase changes at constant temperature are related to

changes in internal potential energy

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8

What is latent heat?

the heat required to convert a solid into a liquid or vapor, or a liquid into a vapor, without change of temperature.

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9

What is fusion?

solid to liquid

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10

What is vaporization?

Liquid to gas

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11

What is sublimation?

solid to gas

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12

What are the bad gases?

Carbon Monoxide, ozone, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter (PM)

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13

What are catalytic converters?

a device incorporated in the exhaust system of a motor vehicle, containing a catalyst for converting pollutant gases into less harmful ones.

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14

What is the catalytic cycle?

Substrate enters empty active site->Enzyme catalyzes substrate->Enzyme releases substrate.

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15

What are CFCs?

CFC stands for Chlorofluorocarbon. This is a type of hydrocarbon that is used in most types of refrigerants for building applications such as centrifugal chillers, refrigerators, and humidifiers. Most applications were installed prior to ozone concerns and they are currently being phased out by the Montreal Protocol.

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16

What is the Greenhouse effect?

the trapping of the sun's warmth in a planet's lower atmosphere due to the greater transparency of the atmosphere to visible radiation from the sun than to infrared radiation emitted from the planet's surface.

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17

What is the earths energy balance?

Earth's energy balance is when to stay at a constant temperature, the Earth must radiate energy into space at the same rate that it is absorbed.

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18

What is climate change?

a change in global or regional climate patterns

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19

What is carbon dioxide sequestration?

carbon dioxide capture and storage

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20

What is the first law of thermodynamics?

Energy can be transferred and transformed, but it cannot be created or destroyed.

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21

What is the second law of thermodynamics?

Every energy transfer or transformation increases the entropy of the universe.

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22

What is Traditional Biomass?

wood, agriculture waste, and animal dung

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23

How much renewable energy do we use?

78.3%

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24

What are P-N Junctions?

A p-type and n-type semiconductor in close contact

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25

What is a n-type semiconductor?

Semiconductor with excess free electrons

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26

What is a p-type semiconductor?

Semiconductor with excess holes

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27

What is voltage?

pressure that pushes electricity through an electrical circuit

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28

What is an ohm?

unit of electrical resistance

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29

What is an ampere?

the unit used to measure electrical current

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30

What is a watt?

unit of power

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31

What is a primary battery?

Cannot be recharged. Initial amounts far from equilibrium

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32

What is a secondary battery?

can be recharged

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33

What is voltage independent of?

Size

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34

What is surface water?

water that is on or above the surface of the land

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35

What is ground water?

water held underground in the soil or in pores and crevices in rock.

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36

What is acid rain?

rainfall made sufficiently acidic by atmospheric pollution that it causes environmental harm, typically to forests and lakes.

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37

What are primary pollutants?

pollutants that are put directly into the air by human or natural activity.-sulfur dioxide-nitric oxide

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38

What are secondary pollutants?

When above pollutants reacts with each other and with other atmospheric components and form:• Nitrogen dioxide• Nitric acid• Nitrates• Sulfuric acid

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39

What are oxidants?

oxygen rich compounds

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40

What is the metric system?

A common system of measurement based on the number 10.

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41

What are the 7 base units of the SI system?

meter, kilogram, second, ampere, kelvin, mole, candela

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42

What are scientific laws?

A statement about what happens in nature and seems to be true most of the time

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43

What is a scientific theory?

a well-tested concept that explains a wide range of observations

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44

What is a scientific model?

a representation of an object or system

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45

What is pseudoscience?

a collection of beliefs or practices mistakenly regarded as being based on scientific method.

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46

What is energy poverty?

the lack of access to fundamental energy services, such as household access to electricity and clean cooking facilities (e.g. fuels and stoves that do not cause air pollution in houses)

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47

What is energy efficiency?

The percentage of energy put into a system that does useful work

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48

What is speed?

distance/time

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49

What is velocity?

Speed in a given direction

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50

What is acceleration?

rate of change of velocity

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51

What is force?

a push or pull on an object

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52

What are the 4 fundamental forces of nature?

force of gravity, electromagnetic force, strong nuclear force, weak nuclear force

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53

What is inertia?

The tendency of an object to resist a change in motion

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54

What is the first law of motion?

An object at rest stays at rest and an object in motion stays in motion remains in motion, unless acted upon by an outside force

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55

What is the second law of motion?

Force = mass x acceleration

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56

What is the third law of motion?

For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction

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57

What is momentum?

The product of an object's mass and velocity

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58

What is centripetal force?

a force that acts on a body moving in a circular path and is directed toward the center around which the body is moving.

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59

What is centrifugal force?

an apparent force that acts outward on a body moving around a center, arising from the body's inertia.

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60

What is friction?

A force that opposes motion

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61

What is Energy?

the ability to do work

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62

What is work?

transfer of energy

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63

What is joule?

unit of energy

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64

What is power?

the rate at which work is done

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65

What is effort?

force applied

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66

What are simple machines?

Inclined Plane, Wedge, Screw, Lever, Wheel and Axle, and Pulley

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67

What is horsepower?

the rate of work that is accomplished

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68

What is potential energy?

energy that is stored

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69

What is kinetic energy?

energy of motion

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70

What are the 5 energy forms?

Mechanical, Thermal, Chemical, Electrical and Radiant

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71

What is the law of conservation of energy?

Energy cannot be created or destroyed, only transferred

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72

What is petroleum?

A mixture of hydrocarbons

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73

What is coal?

A sedimentary rock made from thick plant deposits

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74

What is temperature?

The measure of the average kinetic energy of the molecules.

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75

What is heat flow?

the transfer of energy from a warmer object to a cooler object

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76

What is a calorie?

the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1 degree Celsius

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77

What is a BTU?

British Thermal Unit - the amount of energy required to heat 1 pound of water 1 degrees Fahrenheit

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78

What is conduction ?

transfer of energy from one place to another by contact

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79

What is convection?

heat transfer in a fluid in which hot fluid rises and cold fluid sinks, setting up acycle

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80

What is radiation?

The transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves

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81

What is the kinetic molecular theory?

Kinetic Molecular Theory states that as temperatures increases molecular movement increases.

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82

What is the latent heat of fusion?

The energy needed for a substance to change from a solid to a liquid (melt)

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83

What is evaporation?

Liquid to gas below boiling point

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84

What is condensation?

The change of state from a gas to a liquid

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85

What is thermodynamics?

The study of energy transformations that occur in a collection of matter.

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86

What are heat pumps?

They are bidirectional, heating and cooling devices based on the vapor compression cycle which transfer heat from a compression to an expansion side

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87

What is a phase change?

a reversible physical change that occurs when a substance changes from one state of matter to another

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88

What is respiration?

The process of transferring energy from glucose which goes on in every cell

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89

What is the atmosphere?

the layer of gases that surrounds Earth

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90

What is a chemical reaction?

a process that changes, or transforms, one set of chemicals into another

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91

how do you balance equations?

Write the unbalanced equation, count atoms of each element in the reactants and in the products, add coefficients to balance the atoms, and write the balanced chemical equation

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92

What is particulate matter?

Type of air pollution consisting of tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in air, "aerosol"

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93

What is the ozone?

Three oxygen atoms bonded together into a single molecule (O3)

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94

What is radon?

A cancer-causing radioactive gas. Radon in the ground, groundwater, or building materials enters working and living spaces and disintegrates into its decay products

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95

What is Green chemistry?

the design of chemical products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances

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96

What is wavelength?

the distance between corresponding points on adjacent waves

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97

What is frequency?

the number of waves that pass a given point per second

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98

What is the speed of light?

3.00 x 10^8 m/s

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99

What is quantum theory>

describes mathematically the wave properties of electrons and other very small particles

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100

What are lewis structures?

diagrams that show the bonding between atoms of a molecule and the lone pairs of electrons that may exist in the molecule.

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